It is important to demand the liberation
of prisoners everywhere, not only in the name
of universal humanitarian values, but also in the name of
the values of Islam and Iran.
This should be done without ambiguity or aggressiveness
pointing out that endangering
the lives of prisoners means violating the humanitarian
and moral values of Islam.
Below is proof of this statement:
The following article is dedicated to Gilad Shalit, to
his parents, to all the prisoners and all those working
for their liberation.
Sura 4 of the Koran, Women 58 says: God enjoineth you to
give back your trusts to their owners and when ye judge
between men, to judge with fairness.
Sura 15, The Bee 90 says : God prescribes equity, charity,
benevolent assistance to those near to us.
Sura 46, Al-Ahkaf 13 says: Assuredly they who say “Our
Lord is God” and take the straight way to Him, no
fear shall come on them, neither shall they be put to grief.
These shall be the inmates of Paradise to remain therein
forever - the recompense of their deeds.
Sura 49, The Apartments 9 says: Be impartial in your testimonies.
Moslim comments: The just will be near God on the thrones
of light: these are the people who are fair in the judgments
2. Hadith (traditions)
El-Khatib, based on Ibnu Messaud, wrote: “The Prophet
says: whoever harms a prisoner, I myself will be his adversary
on the Day of Resurrection.”
A hadith in the name of the Prophet: “Seven categories
of people will be protected in the shadow of the Lord on
the day when there will be no shadow except his: firstly
a just governor…”
It is also written: “A judge possesses knowledge but
if he is partial, he will go to hell” (Abu Daoud,
Ibnu Maja, Tirmidi and Hakim).
On the day of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet said to
Om-Hani, daughter of Abu Talev: “Om-Hani, we take
under our protection the man whom you protected and will
safeguard the man you safeguarded.”
In order to fully comprehend the issue of
co-existence, let us examine it at the level of Creation.
Here are the first words of the Torah in English, Hebrew,
and Iranian (Persian/Farsi)
“In the beginning.. God created the heavens and the
“Bereshit bara Elohim et hashamayim ve et haaretz.”
“Dar ebtedo ofarid khoda asmone va zamine ra.”
It is at this level that we should find common ground between
I have written this also in the beautiful Arabic calligraphy:
In the confidence that normal relations will one day
be resumed between us and Iran, I dedicate to all of us
this poem by Rumi, the Iraniansâ€™ ancient official
poet (Mawlana Jalal al-din Muhammad Rumi, 1207-1272; Rashi
died in 1105) in which he writes of love, life and death.
I have sufficiently understood it to be able to write
it in classical calligraphy:
1. dar echgh, ke djoz mei-e bagha, kordan nist
2. djoz djan dadan, dalil-e djane bordan nist.
3. Goftam ke: “to ra shenassam, anega miram.”
4. Gofta ke: shenassaye ma ra, mordan nist.”
1. In love, nothing is of value unless one drinks the
2. and if the soul does not give life, nothing more is
3. I say: “you, I knew you and from this time I
will die (of love).
4. He tells me in these ancient depths: “knowing
me never causes death.”
So it is of Jerusalem, of El Kuds, the holy city which
is for EVERYONE.
No other missile is in our hearts between us.
Knowing one another never causes death.
We shall never renounce this.
After the second week of the war in Lebanon, Iranian
President Mahmud Ahmadinejad declared (I cite his exact
words but have retained only the parts relevant to our
discussion): “To my mind, Lebanon is the arena of
an historic struggle which will determine the future of
humanity. Everyone, all over the world will be tested.
Everyone.... You will see.. This is a mirror which will
reveal the true essence of everyone. This is not an ordinary
struggle. Not at all. It will reveal everything in broad
True, but for the moment, as Rumi writes, the current
partners in the conflict risk seeing the game of death
instead of the dynamics of life for they forget the anthropological,
historical, and religious aspects which unite them.
My approach, which echoes Rumi and is based on the Torah
(“choose life”), aims to remind people of
the best in them and of their common reality.
This is the human mission of Jews.
We must re-learn how to turn towards the Other with gentleness
just like a hand respects the gentleness of the other
We must re-learn how to see two sides simultaneously.
This cat is probably not Persian, I donâ€™t know,
but this hand is Jewish and its childhood was spent in
Iran before the return of so many generations to Jerusalem.
This is why I placed it here as a symbol of reconciliation
between the Iranian leaders and Israel.
When that day comes, I promise, we shall honor in Jerusalem
the Iranians of Iran as the descendants of the greatest
“righteous man of the nations,” and of all
time, to whom we did not express our gratitude as was
due: King Cyrus (Kurash) of Persia.
We honor him at Purim and in our history books but we
should celebrate his memory together, in the presence
of his heirs, just as we are the heirs of Esther and Mordechai.
(photo by the author)
We shall welcome them warmly and will make a blessing
in memory of this cup with which Iranian Jews celebrate
the salvation given to us by Hashem.
We shall proclaim the blessings inscribed on this drawing
of Iranian Jews in the Persian language with Hebrew letters,
for it shows us how our destinies are united in one language,
just as we adopted Arameic script without losing the Hebrew
Here is the beginning of the text in a mixture of Persian
and Hebrew, but written in Hebrew script, a common custom
of Iranian Jews:
Dea kardan Yaakov alav
ha salam, mar Gad ra,
The blessing made by Yaakov, may peace be with him, towards
The anger of the Iranians derives perhaps from our lack
of appreciation and, in this, they are right for they
pay homage to our holy figures.
You didnâ€™t know this? Take a look at this picture:
• The tomb is in Hamadan It is an edifice of brick
and stone, built in the 13th century in Islamic style
on the previous edifice which dates to the time of Queen
Esther. The interior is made of paneling and contains
ancient Torah scrolls. Esther is there, inscribed as the
wife of Khashayarch, the Persian name for the king in
the story of Esther.
The town of Hamadan lies 330 km West of Teheran, on the
Iraqi side, above Borujerd, towns which had Jewish communities
from time immemorial, most of whom recently returned to
Israel, to the land from which they had been expelled
thousands of years ago.
Here is a map of Iran with Hamadan marked with a dove
of peace, the peace which will come thanks to Esther and
History of Iran
Iran was called Persia until March 21, 1935. Archaeological
finds have shown the presence of human life in this area
almost 100,000 years ago and the presence of human cultures
15,000 years ago. Evidence was also found of sophisticated
agriculture and large urban centers dating back 6,000
years. Even though Persia was conquered by the Mongols,
the Arabs and the Turks, it always preserved its own identity.
And it preserved its own language until today, even though
the Arabs imposed Arabic script on the Persian language.
There are many Iranians who still prefer to use non-Arab
Persian (Farsi) was the paramount language in the region
and, at various times, it constituted the administrative
and diplomatic language of the area as far as the Far
East. The Hindi language of India, the languages of Indonesia,
Malaysia and Thailand, among others, contain many Persian
The great Persian dynasties were: the Achaemenid Empire
(559-330BC) founded by Cyrus who decreed the return of
the Jews to Jerusalem and the reconstruction of the Temple.
Thatâ€™s how important he was! This was followed by
the Hellenistic period (330-250 BC), the Parthian Empire
(till 226AD), and the Sassanid dynasties (till 652 AD).
It is after this glorious past, always present in Iranian
memory, that Persia was conquered by Islam, leading to
the violent, unending tensions of today between Sunnis
The status of the Jews in the Persian Empire varied, depending
on the era. With the coming of Islam, Jews were accorded
the protected but denigrating dhimmi status and endured
periods of persecution and forced conversion, interspersed
with periods of calm when they could work as civil servants,
merchants and advisors.
This summarizes the relationship between Iran and the
The Iranian Language
1. Iranian is the language of a people who, like the
Jews, have preserved their language for thousands of years
and are able to read their ancient texts, for these are
written in a language similar to modern Persian. This
is rare among nations and creates a connection with the
Jewish people who read and speak exactly the same Hebrew
as 3,800 years ago, the language of Abraham.
2. Iranian, like Hebrew, expresses the age-old genius
of its people. It is important to know the nuances of
the language in order to understand Iranian psychology.
Of note is the extreme courtesy found in its myriad forms
of polite greetings and compliments all of which are considered
normal; this is not alien to the classical culture of
those who speak Biblical Hebrew and the language of Avram
and Sarai (although the roughness of Israeli pioneers
who thought they could assume a new identity by abandoning
courtesy in favor of bluntness is certainly a problem
in our relations). Iranian is a language that does not
differentiate between masculine and feminine in its conjugations,
it has no articles, and a sentence structure very different
from that of Hebrew. But, like Hebrew, reading Iranian
presupposes knowledge of the spoken language. It is a
language in which the poems of the divan of Hafiz (14th
century) are regularly evoked in order to obtain answers
to practical issues (a tradition called fal). A few years
ago, following the death of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, some
of his followers adapted this Iranian custom to the writings
of the Rebbe and use the latter to obtain answers to practical
questions. It is therefore useful to know the origins
of such customs in order to understand one another and
in order to know which of our traditions are Jewish and
which derive from other cultures.
Thus, to understand one another, it is not enough to speak
of ideas, borders or politics. We need to understand the
modes of thought, codes of practice, sensitivities, points
in common and differences with the other party.
3. Just as the Jews of Judah were forced by their cruel
Western occupiers (the Romans) to change the name of their
nation to Palestine (a way of denigrating the Jews by
giving them the name of their ancient enemies), the Persian
language (the Persian word for language is zaban) was
forced by the sword to bow to the Arab-Islam occupation
and adopt Arabic script. But the script of its occupiers
could not cater to the nuances and spelling of the Persian
language. The desire to preserve Persian individuality
is one of the many elements at play in the tense, often
hostile relationship with Mecca - a relationship
between ancient invaders and forced converts, even if
today they share the same religion. But ancient Zoroastrian
or Manichean traditions have survived and have infiltrated
the poetry which is known to all Iranians, acting like
a resistance movement to the forced change in the national
4. For 14 centuries, like the Jews, the Iranians struggled
fiercely to preserve their identity: with some, this took
the form of resisting the dominating Arabic vocabulary
which constitutes today almost 60% of the Persian language.
It is true that, since the conquest by Islam, many great
Persian poets used a maximum number of Arabic words. But
the author who exemplified most the resistance to the
Arab occupation by refusing to use Arabic, was Ferdowsi
(10th century), author of the famous Book of Kings. In
more than 50,000 distichs, Ferdowsi recounts, as in an
epic poem, the entire ancient history of Persia before
the Islamic conquest, in a language that eschews any word
deriving from the Arab conquerors. This work is read by
every Iranian and it remains a cornerstone of the national
consciousness. Some Iranians tried to follow this approach
(similar to what Eliezer ben Yehuda did for modern Hebrew)
but remained a minority despite efforts by the Shah to
revive ancient Persian culture (the Shah failed because
of his political policies and neglect of social issues).
Persian, like Hebrew, but unlike English or French which
use additional words to express interrogations, expresses
interrogation through intonation and its syntax is simple,
like Hebrew. Meaning is expressed primarily through intonation
and manner of speech, rather than through grammatical
forms. This creates an entirely different mentality, which
must be taken into account if one wishes to understand
and communicate with Iranians.
5. The Iranian people has been resolute in pursuing their
resistance and have refused to adopt Arab pronunciation
which logically followed the adoption of Arabic script.
Iranians do not pay heed to the many different ways of
pronouncing Arabic letters such as S, T and Z, even though
they were forced to adopt these differences in spelling.
Thus they write 4 types of Z but pronounce them identically.
They similarly refuse to pronounce the guttural letters
typical of Arabic and do not differentiate between the
various forms of aspirated H. They do this with a stubbornness
that echoes the stubbornness of Jews. Israelis who refuse
to pronounce Semitic sounds demonstrate a similar resistance
for they believe that if they keep this pronunciation
they are submitting to Arabic or to the pronunciation
of Jews who lived in Arab countries. They are mistaken
for this is the authentic way of pronouncing Hebrew, which
is a Semitic language and by rejecting this form of pronunciation,
they are adopting that of Jews who lived in Poland and
Russia - all of which is quite absurd and even more
so when it is imposed by the educational system.
6. An important point should be noted: the presence of
words of Persian origin in Hebrew; such as pardes, paradise,
which derives from the ancient Farsi word pairi-daeza.
7. These anthropological and cultural aspects of Iranian
identity should be studied further in order to gain an
understanding of the other side. Grammatical rules in
Iranian are not as strict as, for example, in French.
In Iranian, everything is flexible and everything is possible
enabling the expression of specific ideas. How can we
understand the declarations of Iranian politicians if
we do not understand the internal laws behind their thinking?
The Iranian language is not like the obtuse language of
diplomacy: its grammatical flexibility and myriad permutations
enable a Machiavellian resistance to the adversary. Thus
there is no single word that expresses “too much,”
only sequences of words. To ignore these linguistic subtleties
means to be unable to maintain a political dialogue, which
is the case today. Iranian religious extremism should
not be taken at face value: Iranians are simultaneously
extreme Islamic fundamentalists and extreme anti-Islamists.
Itâ€™s not for nothing that the village idiot in Iranian
folk humor is called Nasreddine, meaning “victory
8. In attempting to further understanding
between Jewish and Iranian cultures, this essay does not
aim to attack Arabic or the Arabs for great poets such
as Hafez freely used Arabic in their vocabulary, and even
the Rambam wrote major works in Arabic.
Judaism also recognizes the importance of other languages,
notably Arabic. The Sages of the Sanhedrin, the supreme
court in Jerusalem, spoke and understood the 70 main languages.
“Hear O Israel” - it is important to
open your eyes and ears, to see and listen
to the Other in order to truly understand him.
t Iran has a quality that is unique among all the nations.
Like the Jews, Iranians resisted, refused to succumb and
succeeded in preserving their language. This is a unique
experience, common to the two nations. Italy lost the
Roman language, Greece lost ancient Greek and France lost
medieval French. The US had nothing to lose in this respect.
Thus, in order to make it quite clear that
this article is not against Iran or any other civilization,
I quote an extract from research I carried out on the
meaning of dreams in Arabic cultural sources (as I did
with Latin, Greek and Spanish). The research was part
of my 1982 doctoral thesis on psychotherapy. I use this
approach, which combines understanding of the individual
with the understanding of how a personâ€™s internal
structure is formed by the specific genius of his culture,
when training Jewish and Arab psychotherapists. I call
this approach ethno-psychology (preferring to use the
non-pathological term instead of ethno-psychiatry which
“psychiatrizes” patients) and I only use it
with languages whose inner structure I understand.
It should be clear: fundamentally, there is no issue
of rivalry between Israel and other civilizations
We must hope for peaceful relations with all peoples
and have the same desire to share a common path.
At the time of the Temple, all the nations came to Jerusalem
to bring sacrifices and presents. Many world leaders dreamt
of owning a house in Jerusalem.
We are all made from the same Creation, we all derive
from Adam and we are all unique creatures made in the
image of God.
Each one of us possesses a complementary individuality.
The Talmud lists a long list of qualities, which only
one nation possesses exclusively, to the extent of 90%.
We should not forget this and we should learn about others
and respect them.
(picture by the author)
This is the basis for achieving peace. We must stop imposing
our way of thinking and our philosophies on others.
The intoxication with politics is a form of tyrannical,
totalitarian rule over the world (this includes the concept
of human rights, which is typically Western and ignorant
of other cultures) which only leads to war. It is a “dualistic”
concept which divides parties into two irreconcilable
We need to develop a more complex, anthropologically-based,
respectful and un-dominating approach. Love the Other
with respect as you love yourself. The Other (shoni in
Hebrew) is not “anti,” he is different (shone).
There is no room for no arms dealers in this approach
of learning about the Other in order to co-exist and respect
the Otherâ€™s integrity. A true relationship is not
the usual relationship of “commerce.” One
wonders why this approach is not including in the training
of diplomats, politicians and journalists.
How often have I seen the latter disembarking in the
Middle East, totally ignorant of these dimensions, having
written their articles from their desks in Paris or New
York, and developed their theories at their local cafe.
Then they have the audacity to explain to me what was
going on here, even in psychoanalytical terms. The same
phenomenon is found in Israel, where intellectuals propound
their theories in total ignorance of the anthropological
dimensions of Judaism its history, its religion and ancient
sources, in order to be admired by the West. People die
in this region as a result of this irresponsible approach.
For centuries men conducted themselves this way, with
total lack of understanding, towards women and we continue
to do so politically towards other nations.
I conclude this essay with a passage in Persian.
The passage shows us that we possess everything in order
to succeed and in order to have peace and life. It is
up to us to apply it. I adapted the text from the Bible
into Persian (Farsi):
Frame this text and put it in your house so you will
not forget it.
May those, everywhere, who follow the precept of Kurash-Cyrus
be blessed as may those who, many centuries after us,
will finally hear the message.
Here is the exact translation, which you can verify on
the last page of your Bible:
“Now in the first year of Kurash, Cyrus, King of
Persia, that the word of Hashem spoken by the mouth of
Jeremiah might be accomplished, Hashem stirred up the
spirit of Cyrus King of Persia, that he made a proclamation
throughout his kingdom and put it also in writing, saying:
Thus saith Cyrus, King of Persia, All the kingdoms of
the earth hath Hashem, God of heaven given me; and he
hath charged me to build him an house in JERUSALEM, WHICH
IS IN JUDAH. Who is there among you of all his people?
Hashem his God be with him and let him go up.”
Here, links to papers in french
language. Open these pages, they complement each other:
l'alliance multimillénaire de base
à l'époque de Qoréche et
L'union unique entre l'Iran et Israël va
Esther et le Roi. Le tombeau d'Esther vénéré
Le Roi Cyrus d'Iran, le seul ayant ordonné
de reconstruire le Temple et a autorisé
les Juifs à revenir à Jérusalem.
Ce lien unique, antithèse de la rupture
de la sortie d'Egypte, et tiqqoune de la Création
par le dévoilement d'Esther (Israël)
attend son épanouissement.
Nous en suivons les péripéties anthropologiques
et non politiques.
Et les suivrons au jour le jour.
Nous sommes sortis d'Egypte, avançons vers
le don de la Torah.
livre d'Esther et la fête de Pourim
Indispensable pour comprendre cette relation
Président d'Israël né en Iran
La connaissance du pays Iran :
la géographie, la culture sous toutes forme
L'orientation actuelle de l'Iran:
tout sur Khomeini
principaux leaders actuels
Les principales données
Un résumé, tellement similaire à
l'histoire juive pour la conscience de l'identité
identique et plurimillénaire, avec les mêmes
conquérants et occupants jusqu'à maintenant,
est écrit à la fin de cette page-ci.
Ainsi que la résistance et la fidélité
à la langue antique dans les deux peuples.
Qui est l'auteur de ce dossier et son orientation
humaine et scientifique:
Secrétaire général de
l'Association internationale d'échanges
scientifique sur la violence et la coexistence.
- en arabe et persan sur la Création
- en persan sur le livre d'Esther
- en hindi sur la le chant Insaf,
chant de la libération de l'Inde
expliquant aux enfants que c'est seulement en
marchant que la lumière se dévoile.
en persan sur un poème de Rumi
affirmant la victoire de la vie sur les pensées
L'attention à toutes les
les épisodes de la vie quotidienne
Dans l'histoire ancienne:
Juifs pris en étau entre les empires conquérants
de la région
Dans l'histoire contemporaine:
Une crise violente et temporaire qui s'acheva
l'emprisonnement de leaders juifs
1 - page
2 - page
3 - page
La beauté des Juifs et de Jérusalem
dans le plan de
D.ieu, reconnues par le Qoran et les textes islamiques
beauté du Roi Qoréch
dans les textes juifs
de la Bible
Suivre en direct l'actualité vue d'Iran
de presse de la République islamique
la position officielle de la République
islamique sur les questions internationales
lien du Hamas à l'Iran
qu'est le Hamas
place privilégiée d'Ispahan dans l'espace
Positions held by the author
Yehoshua Ra'hamim (Roger) Dufour
Rav (rabbinical semisha by Rav Chalom Messas, Chief Rabbi
of Marocco, and after Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem, zal).
Psychologist, psychoanalyst, psychodrama therapist. Counseling.
State Doctorate in Clinical Human Sciences (with highest
distinction), Paris 7.
Subject: a theoretical and critical study of the personal
and cultural imagination in analytical daydreaming.
Previously held positions:
Professor, Department of Criminology, University of Bar
Ilan, Ramat Gan, Israel.
Co-founder and Secretary General of ASEVICO, International
Association for Scientific Exchange on Violence and Human
Teacher with the IFEPP, the Institute of Training and
Teaching in Psychological and Psychososiological studies.
President of the International Association of Psychoanalytical
President of the International Psychoanalytical and Anthropological
Awarded the Gabriel Tarde Prize in 1989 by the French
Association of Criminology.
Telephone: 972-2-563 41 37
from Israel: 02 - 563 41 37
Fax: 972-2-563 41 37
from Israel: 02-563 41 37
Address: Dufour-Modia 5 alef Rehov Alroi, Jerusalem 92108.
Three areas of
Psychology, anthropology, Jewish tradition.
Domains of specialization:
1. Psychotherapy and counseling, with emphasis on ethnopsychology
and the influence of psychological, cultural and Jewish
backgrounds on self-development;
2. The psychological and psychopathological aspects of
violence; Multicultural research on violence and human
3. The cognitive processes involved in the study of the
Torah and the Talmud.
In what way are these three areas linked?
Many readers want to understand the relationship between
the study of epistemology of Jewish texts as described
in my book "Lev Gompers" and my professional
activities as a teacher of psychology and therapeutic
My answer is that I dwell and "live" in Jerusalem
(may it become a truly holy city again!).
After having taught in Paris, I am now a professor at
the University of Bar Ilan in the Department of Criminology,
where I teach students about the psychology of violence.
I also work as a counselor in self-development.
I devote considerable time to study, research and publication.
My approach in my research, publications, teaching, counseling
and psychotherapy, is also based on the three areas listed
above: psychology, anthropology and Jewish tradition.
I try to understand how each individual functions, thinks,
communicates and what is the influence or tradition that
has shaped him and given him the
means to develop, fulfill himself, maintain equilibrium
and manage the personal or inter-personal crises which
erupt in a personâ€™s life.
In all of these areas, as in what links the three domains
- psychology, anthropology and Jewish tradition, as in
the "Lev Gompers," and as in meditation and
Torah teaching, the central guiding force of man is the
Jewish concept of "lev" - the heart.
My aim, when a Jew asks for help or enters psychotherapy,
is to help him discover this holistic link and harmony
which is the basis of self-development. (See my thesis
The papers and books I have written follow the same approach
with regard to psychotherapy, dreams, the doctor/healer-patient
relationship, personal, inter-personal crises or group
crises, the relationship between psychology
and Jewish tradition, the fight against violence, and
the struggle for human coexistence.
Thus these two areas (scientific and Jewish anthropology)
are not treated as separate, for they are part and parcel
of the same person; the person who seeks and the person
who constructs are one and the same. Applying all oneâ€™s
personal resources in order to help, study, act or pray,
involves the same process, for it is written in Tractate
Shabbat 75a: R. Shimon ben Pazi, in the name of R. Yehoshua
ben Levi in the name of Bar Kappara said: "he who
studied astronomy and does not practice this science is
designated by this verse ‘they regard not the work
of the Lord, neither consider the operation of His handsâ€™
(Isaiah 5, 12)."
Studying, researching and teaching the Torah.
The preface of Lev Gompers (2nd edition) describes my
background in Torah study and the Sages who influenced
me. It also includes recommendations by rabbinical authorities
on the book which is an introductory book to the study
of the Talmud.
Here is a short extract from the recommendation of Rav
Shalom Messas (Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem, and Head of Rabbinical
Courts of Jerusalem): "… an important work,
not only because of its content but also because of its
high standard.. It presents a wealth of knowledge, rules
and introductions both for beginner students of the Talmud
and for those who have already delved in it… even
the most knowledgeable hakhamim (scholars)
of the Talmud and its commentaries will value and benefit
from this work."
The entire Modia Website is devoted to the epistemology
of Judaism at an academic study, encompassing every aspect:
cognitive, emotional, inter-personal,representation of
man, time, space, etc. This knowledge is indispensable,
particularly for those who work in counseling, psychotherapy,
education. It is essential for people working in these
fields to take into account the implicit or explicit ethnopsychology
of those who seek help. (see below).
Books (as of 1989)
1 . Lâ€™image et le corps. [Psychotherapy in Prisons:
Image and Body]
ESF publishers-Paris, 1989, 165 pages. (In all bookstores)
Abstract: The author has chosen to describe psychotherapy
conditions (prison, noise, the case of a murderer, risk
mutilation, acting out, repressive institution) in order
to illustrate the
essence of psychotherapy. He describes the therapeutic
theoretical analysis of the cases, his interventions and
which emerged. He shows how he takes into account the
body, image and language. Each step in the therapy warrants
analytical assessment and creativity. The book is accompanied
Target audience: the general public, students, psychotherapists
Key words: dream, daydreaming, motive, creativity, body
executing an act, treatment of violent prisoners, personal
2 . La relation avec le patient. [Patientsâ€™ Perception
and Illness]. Privat-Dunod, Toulouse-Paris, 1992, 239
pages. (In all
Abstract: Illness is a difficult period both for the
physician/caregiver as for the sick person and his family.
In addition to
physical pain, the sick person experiences great internal
this creates difficulties in the caregiver-patient relationship.
good intentions on all sides, lack of understanding, dissatisfaction,
misunderstandings, anguish, violence, institutional scorn
occurrences. The scientific book is based on the authorâ€™s
accompaniment of sick people during illnesses which lasted
over ten years.
It describes numerous cases, offers advice, and constitutes
illness guide, for sick people as well as for their families
caregivers. It helps people deal with dissatisfaction,
quality of life, conflicts, and loneliness during this
chapters are devoted to serious illnesses and terminal
caregivers feel particularly helpless and are at a loss
as to what to do
and say. The chapters are accompanied by short, specialized
of titles offering a broader knowledge on the subject
and suitable for
personal development and teaching purposes.
Target audience: researchers, therapists, the general
public, medical students, caregivers and
relatives of patients.
Key words: illness, quality of life, cancer patient, doctor-patient
therapists, the general public, medical students, caregivers
relatives of patients.
3 . Ecouter le Reve (Psycholinguistics of daydreaming
in psychoanalytic treatment).
Robert Laffont, 1992, revised 2nd edition. 350 pages.
Abstract: The book describes the process of daydreaming,
its rules and
linguistics, and how psychotherapy and psychoanalysis
Therapeutic work with daydreams not only reveals important
interpretation but also creates a psychic reorganization
patients to resolve problems and develop self-understanding
The book describes these processes and teaches how to
listen to oneself and
to others, for we are always astride between reality and
the dreamworld. It
enables one to discover the great literary and mythical
wealth which exists
in all daily discourse.
Target audience: the general public, students, psychotherapists
Key words: daydreaming, dream-work, listening, linguistics,
4 . Dictionnaire de la violence et du crime [Scientific
Dictionary of Violence and Crime].
Eres. Toulouse, 1993. 458 pages. (in all bookstores)
Abstract: The book examines, subject by subject, current
issues of violence
(theft, assault, terrorism, rape, crime, suicide, political
violence, drugs, media, incest, war, etc.) and is based
on the authorâ€™s own
research and that of international experts, particularly
researchers, whose works are little known in France. It
also describes the
different researchers, schools of thought and concepts,
and lists the
bibliographies of the best works on each subject.
Target audience: this book addresses itself to all those
violence and to professionals who deal with issues of
violence. It is
therefore suitable for those who work in the social sector
and psychotherapists, educators, social workers, journalists,
judges, physicians and psychiatrists, police officers,
working in drug rehabilitation programs, etc.); to those,
regional and national offices, who are in charge of individual
violence and who require a solid grounding on the subject;
to heads of
community organizations (cultural, educational, parents
aid to minorities and victims of violence); to the members
of the public
who are exposed to violence in their daily lives and in
the media and who
are concerned about the rise of violence in our society.
Key-words: violence, crime.
5 . Clinical Criminology. Subject headings: violence,
deviance and human rights, scientific classification,
computational linguistics, an indexing system and informational
[In English, French and Italian.]
Proxima, International Institute for Human Rights. Trieste,
Italy. 1993. 251 pages.
Abstract: This book is addressed to academics and librarians.
all the concepts relating to violence which are found
literature and used in numerous disciplines and organizes
them in a logical
hierarchy suitable for use in computerized library systems.
The book is
entirely trilingual and enables the listing of French
and Italian scientific concepts
and publications in international data-banks.
6 . Les dynamiques psychologiques et cliniques du crime
lâ€™humanite [pychological and clinical processes
of crimes against humanity]: chapter
in "Le Crime Contre lâ€™Humanite."
Eres. Toulouse, 1996. pp. 135-154.
Abstract: This interdisciplinary book is devoted to the
logic of mass
extermination which so painfully characterizes the 20th
century in numerous
countries. The chapter presents a clinical and psychological
various mass murderers. It is based on interviews, diaries,
psychotherapies, judicial proceedings, psychological and
examinations, and personal testimonies of different types
The author stresses the process of personality splits,
multiple sets of
morals operating simultaneously, unequivocal monodependency
on a third
party, and the presence of these mechanisms in collaborators
the mass murderers.
Target audience: the general public, students and teachers
Key-words: Holocaust, Hitler, Nazism, genocide, war, criminals,
obedience, torture, survivors, mass-murder.
7 . Role de lâ€™intellectuel face aux causes de
la violence politique dans
la societie occidentale [The role of the intellectual
and the causes of political
violence in Western society] in "Pour un monde responsable
[towards a responsible and united world]. Editions Montmorency,
Canada. 19997. Pp. 379-391.
Abstract: In addition to the classical theories, the author
insists on the
need for intellectuals to know different cultures and
to think in terms of
different anthropologies; not to limit themselves to theories
on others but
to consider different concepts from the perspective of
Conflicts are based on implicit ideologies which simplify
it into the two categories of good and evil and demonize
the enemy before
treating his disappearance as a logical event. The intellectualâ€™s
ideologies, religion and ethics for the cause of violence
is a process
which needs to be examined closely and competently.
Target audience: the general public, students and teachers
Key words: collective violence, ideology, hate.
8 . Jerusalem et lâ€™homme-Bible (poems - Jerusalem
9 . Lev Gompers: Comment etudier le Talmud avec les
maitres de la
tradition. [How to study the Talmud with the masters of
Lev. Jerusalem, 1994. 521 pages. 2nd revised edition in
press. Extracts on
the Modia site.
10 . Lâ€™Amour au dela de lâ€™amour (poems -
Love which is beyond love).
Extracts on the Modia site.
11 . Lâ€™Ami des aurores (poems - Friend of the
dawn). Extracts on the
Some papers (since 1992)
The author has published more than 50 papers in major
1. Le suicide et la tradition Juive [Suicide in Jewish
Nouvelle Revue dâ€™Ethnopsychiatrie, 19. 1992. Pp.
Abstract: The paper presents numerous cases of suicide
described in Jewish religious literature and analyzes
them from a psychological perspective. It also describes
the complex and nuanced attitude of Jewish law (halakha)
Key words: suicide, halakha, Bible, Judaism.
2. Penser la violence
Revue Internationale des Sciences. PP 246-268.
Abstract: The paper describes the development of visual,
progaganda techniques in contemporary warfare. It examines
the psychological processes of this phenomenon and the
role played by the military, the media and the spectator-public.
Key words: terrorism, violence, war, cinema, television.
3. Ver la violencia de la guerra o el teatro de operaciones.
Revista International de Ciencias de Catalunya. Centre
Unesco de Catalunya,
Barcelona, Juno 1992. PP 237-256.
4. Watching the violence of warfare in the theatre of
International Social Science Journal. Blackwell Publishers.
May 1993. Pp.
Abstract: The comment that war is as good as watching
a film and the phrase
‘ theater of operationsâ€™ aptly sum up contemporary
attitudes to warfare and highlight the increasing importance
of its visual aspects. The author describes the psychological
mechanisms with which terrorism operates on the
general public, the publicâ€™s attitude to war, terrorism
as a communication strategy, fantasy journalism, press
reporting and dramatization, collective criminal thinking,
terrorists and soldiers as actors, social conditions
conducive to terrorism, the regulatory role of journalists,
daydreaming and reality.
Key words: terrorism, journalist, dream, crime, strategy,
5. Watching the violence of warfare in the theatre of
operations [in Chinese].
International Social Science Journal. Peking. 1994. Pp.
The above paper has also been published in Arabic and
6. Les intellectuels et la violence [intellectuals and
Hebrew University. Studies in Literature, 20. 1993. Pp.
Abstract: The paper examines the phenomena of rivalry,
aggression and violence in academic life and the part
played by intellectuals in legitimizing collective violence.
7. Correspondance sur la lutte pour la vie dans les camps
en France [Psychology of prisoners in Nazi transit camps
Revue Perspectives. 1. 1994. Hebrew University Studies.
Jerusalem. Pp. 100-164.
Abstract: The paper presents and analyzes from a psychological
perspective 50 letters written by a woman prisoner in
Drancy. The letters reveal the psychological evolution
undergone by deportees, in particular, the processes of
psychological resistance to the degradations which they
experienced. The paper enabled the author to publish in
1994 official documents proving, contrary to the falsehoods
disseminated in various quarters, that the French government
had ordered that the monies sequestered from the deportees
were to be placed individual accounts with the Caisse
des Depots et Consignations, and not in one collective
account which allegedly disappeared. Despite numerous
attempts by the author to publicize this fact, the media
remained silent until international pressure recently
forced the French government to establish a committee
of inquiry into the issue.
Key words: deportation, prisoners, French police, dormant
frozen accounts, Auschwitz, Gompers, Chereau.
Understanding Jewish Identity
for Psychological and Educational Counselors
by Rav Professor Yehoshua Rahamim (Roger) Dufour
This page is directed at two types of professional counselors:
1 . Professionals who "counsel" in the broadest
sense of the word. These are professionals to whom people
turn to for help, through talk and through the relationship
with the counselor, in order to understand themselves
better or in order to deal with existential, professional,
emotional, sexual or inter-personal difficulties.
The counseling process is not just a matter of understanding
and resolving problems; it also involves the evolution
of a personâ€™s identity.
This category also includes psychologists who work in
Jewish institutions and who counsel people who specifically
wish to relate to their Jewish identity.
2 . This page is also directed at rabbis who, in their
capacity as spiritual guides and leaders, are constantly
consulted on personal matters but who have no specific
When counselors try to understand the background and language
of those who come to seek their help, they usually find
themselves confronted with a world that is totally different
to theirs. Words themselves have a different content.
Moreover, the inner psychological structures which form
the self are based on different cultures. This is not
only due to the fact that people have different cultural
and sociological affiliations. It is due to the ethnopsychology
on which self-development is based. Thus,
- an individualâ€™s relationship with his family,
his mother, father, brothers and sisters has a different
intrapsychic representation depending if the person is
Jewish or non-Jewish.
- the same applies to the way an individual represents
himself in terms of time, history, and national identity.
- and the same applies to everything that shapes and influences
the development of a particular personality: happiness,
inter-personal relationships, marriage, the family, faults,
guilt, recompense, pleasure, future, life itself, death,
the afterworld, violence, human coexistence, etc.
Every professional counselor knows that understanding,
analysis and evolution is achieved through psychological
work based on such representations: herein are the events,
relationships, identifications and images which form the
material a counselor works with. Nothing in this domain
is objective reality, for everything is viewed through
intrapsychic representation. Moreover, in a therapeutic,
counseling or analytical situation, this material emerges
in a relationship between two people who are different,
both culturally and personally.
The need for a Jewish ethnopsychology
In view of the above, a professional who wishes to give
help should possess:
- knowledge of the psychology of the development of personality
and how it functions, knowledge of counseling or psychotherapy;
- knowledge of the world of intrapsychic representations,
which are expressed in a common language but which have
different inner meanings for a Jew and a non-Jew.
(This is the case for every person and his individual
world. My doctoral thesis focused on the influence of
cultural imagination in dreams and I analyzed this subject
in relation to several cultures, taking into consideration
the role of different languages.)
In the case of Judaism, certain facts should be known
by all professionals working in the field of psychology:
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of knowledge on
the development of cognitive processes in individuals:
these processes are expressed in inter-personal relationships,
group relations, discussions, conflicts and arbitration.
My book, Lev Gompers, is entirely devoted to this corpus
of knowledge and teaches how to study it.
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of knowledge for
perfecting middot - the human and spiritual qualities
which characterize men in their relationships with others.
A Jew is thus given, through education, a number of parameters
which guide his relationships with others, and he is also
given a strict set of laws for the development and rectification
of these middot. These are, for example, modesty, humility,
sense of propriety, love, respect for others, joy, marital
relations, relations with oneâ€™s parents, children,
and neighbors. Jewish tradition transmits guidelines for
reflection, self-awareness, acknowledgment of errors,
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of knowledge and
laws for mastering sexual and aggressive urges (towards
others or towards oneself).
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of knowledge on
the processes of self-awareness and projection. This is
particularly strong in relation to the validity of judicial
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of tradition of
inter-personal support, which is developed through study,
prayer, meditation, daily, weekly and annual rituals.
- Judaism possesses an ancient corpus of knowledge on
the different psychological processes of those who develop
these qualities by sustaining family traditions, returning
to tradition or through integrative study.
I would like to stress that, in a similar way, these dimensions
concern everyone (non-Jews as well) who seek help.
Ethnopsychiatry and ethnopsychology take all these dimensions
into account. Judaism presents a special problem because
its educational and therapeutic systems of thought were
formulated, put into practice and transmitted more than
3000 years ago and are practiced today in the same written
and oral language.
These dimensions nearly always play a conscious or unconscious
role, because of the fact that non-Jews also view Jews
specifically as Jews.
Psychological counselors and the need for a basic knowledge
The reason why this corpus of knowledge is inaccessible
today is because:
- it is not taught in modern institutions in this double
- it requires extensive knowledge of Judaism, rather than
psychology, in order to understand it in depth and put
it into practice.
Thus, the majority of counselors and psychologists (or
associated professions) have no possibility of studying
the subject in depth.
Certain rare psychologists or other professional counselors
have some knowledge of this domain but they rarely study
it systematically, nor do they apply it in practice.
Modia is an accessible scientific publication which answers
In view of the needs of professional counselors and in
view of the needs of the educated public for an integrative
training in this domain, I have decided
- to use this new medium to cater to the needs of those
who seek to know more about the anthropological basis
- to make accessible on this site academic papers of the
highest standard which adhere to the criteria enumerated
- to use the possibilities offered by Internet links in
order to create a truly integrative site, which covers
the cognitive, existential, emotional and aesthetic dimensions
of the subject.
The response of viewers has confirmed the need for such
a site. Modia has been consistently popular with viewers.
Modia registered 1500 visitors by day on its various sections.
The choice of this method of teaching was wise.
Modia is both an effective university and a yeshiva and
no other form of dissemination of my writings has reached
so wide an audience: my books have been published in fewer
than several thousand copies, acquired primarily by specialists.
And how many read them in their entirety?
In contrast, the continuity in the number of viewers and
the number of letters which arrive every day on the site
confirm the efficiency of this form of publication and
This site offers viewers the opportunity of learning about
the anthropology of the Jewish people:
- knowledge of the "founding" texts of Judaism;
- Jewish methods of commentary and study;
- the different schools and masters of Torah;
- Jewish thought regarding mankind, God and morality;
- the Jewish view of time (the Jewish calendar, history,
day, prayers, weeks, Shabbat, festivals and stages of
- the Jewish view of space (the centrality of Israel and
Jerusalem, exile, places of study, the home, the community);
- the integration of all levels of human existence (cognitive,
imaginary, aesthetic, emotional, active, interpersonal)
These teachings are communicated not only through the
content but also through the form and style of this site.
For this reason too, the entire site is written by the
I have chosen a style which transmits concepts and thoughts
in a language that is comprehensible, and not in the jargon
of any particular group. In keeping with Rashiâ€™s
commentaries, the style chosen aims to enable every level
of viewer to learn from the site and find in it things
that are relevant to him. Finally, nearly everything is
based directly on written sources, for this is not journalism.
Recommendation by the rabbinical authorities of Israel.
Below is an extract from the foreword of my book "Lev
Gompers" by Rav Shalom Messas, Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem,
and Head of Rabbinical Courts of Jerusalem (the complete
review takes up one page and is published in the introduction
to" Lev Gompers"): "… an important
work, not only because of its content but also because
of its high standard… It presents a wealth of knowledge,
rules and introductions both for beginner students of
the Talmud and for those have already delved in it……even
the most knowledgeable hakhamim - scholars - of the Talmud
and its commentaries will appreciate and benefit from