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Parasha No. 10
Mikketz: “At the end of”

Bereshit (Genesis) 41, 1 - 44, 17

True trust, bitahon


1. Themes of parasha Mikketz
2. Themes of parasha Vayigash
3. Who is trustable?
4. Levels of trust
5. Our level of trust
6. Yosef and trust
7. The basis of Yosef's skill
8. Internalization exercise
9. Recommended reading
10. 2nd level: study the Hebrew
vocabulary of this parasha
11. The concept of bitahon in Hebrew

Listen to the parasha chanted
(Ort link) teamim Ashkenazim

Listen to the haftara chanted
(Ort link) teamim Ashkenazim

The festival of Hanukka

Rosh Hodesh Tevet
and the customs of
Rosh Hodesh labanot

Note: Do not forget to read aloud and repeat the Hebrew words cited in this commentary. This is the best way to learn and remember them.


Themes of parasha Mikketz

" Pharaoh's dream (halom) (7 fat cows, parot, devoured by 7 lean cows; then 7 full ears of corn, shibolim, devoured by 7 lean ears. The failure of the magicians to understand the dream.
" Yosef is released from prison; he interprets (poter) the dream and counsels Pharaoh. He is named Pharaoh's viceroy (mishne) and is given authority over all of Egypt.
" Birth of Menashe and Ephraim
" The famine (raav) in Egypt and the region

" Yosef's brothers (ahim) come before him. He recog
nizes them (vayaker) but they do not recognize him. Yosef remembers the dreams he had about them and tests their loyalty and feelings of guilt and remorse. .
" He accuses them of being spies (meraglim), takes one brother (Shimon) and sends them to bring Binyamin, the son of his mother Rahel and the only son who stayed behind with his father and whom his father cherishes.
" Yaakov cannot bear to part from his son, but finally concedes and sends Binyamin and presents to the Egyptian governor.
" Yosef invites his brothers to dine with him, and frees the brother he took captive. He asks for news of his father, and meets his youngest brother Binyamin. He then sends them away, but meantime he has hidden a silver goblet in Binyamin's sack. The brothers find it and return to Yosef, pleading guilty.
" Yosef takes Binyamin captive.

I shall now also list the themes of Vayigash because, as notes the Shla, it is impossible to separate them and the two parashiot, (together with parasha Vayeshev) deal with problems between brothers.

Themes of parasha Vayigash

" Yehuda pleads eloquently and tells Yosef that if his father does not see Binyamin again, he will die.
" Yosef can no longer refrain himself (ve lo yakhol Yosef lehitapek) and reveals his identity to his brothers. He tells them he believes God allowed them to sell him in order that he would save later his family (see 45, 7).
" Pharaoh invites Yosef's family to settle in Egypt.
" Yosef's brothers return to Yaakov and tell him that Yosef is now viceroy of Egypt. Yaakov/Yisrael takes all his possessions and departs for Egypt.
" The list of Yaakov's descendants (46, 7...), who total 70 members (46, 27) which is an important number.
" Yosef settles his family as shepherds (roe tzon) in the region of Goshen and presents 5 of his brothers to Pharaoh; then Yaakov blesses Pharaoh (47, 10).
" During the famine, Yosef puts all the wealth of Egypt in Pharaoh's hands, except for that of the priests. The entire population become slaves of Pharaoh (avadim le Faro, 47, 19) and must give him 1/5 of their harvest, except for the priests.
" Yaakov's family grow and flourish (va yirbu meod) in Egypt (47, 27).

Who is trustable?
Rabbenu Bahya find the meaning of the parasha in Mishle (Proverbs) 3, 5:
Betah el Hashem bekhol libekha, ve el-binatekha al-tishaen
"Trust in Hashem with all thine heart, and lean not unto thine own understanding."

We saw, in the last parasha, numerous betrayals of Yaakov by those closest to him: who can one trust? What is trustable? Who will help in times of hardship? In whom can we have what tradition calls bitahon?

What can we learn from Yosef? How did he conduct himself? And what type of trust made such a happy ending possible both on a personal and collective level.

Let us examine this question.

Rabbenu Bahya show us that we can achieve different levels of trust.
(It follows that:
" we must educate children to progress from one level to another;
" adults can correct later on what they did not learn in childhood.)

The levels of trust
Rabbenu Bahya says that the first level of trust consists in:

Stages 1 and 2. The first trust shown by a child is towards its mother, on whom life depends, for food and for affection (this mixture of nourishment and affection creates in all human beings great "thirst" and "hunger" for affection. This is the prototype of all relationships.)
Stage 3. At this stage, a child begins to show trust towards the father, and he has to provide it with bitahon.
Stage 4. Then a child must develop trust in itself, in its own strengths and abilities in order to survive independently.

Then one arrives at level two:
Stage 5. The adult is now capable of reflection and knows and trusts his own strengths. He reflects on his experiences and understands that, despite his abilities, he is not all-powerful and he is aware of his vulnerability. He now places the trust, which he had put in himself and in his parents, in Hakadosh Barukh Hu. He has understood that what governs life (nature, rain, storms, etc.) does not depend on him.

This level of trust (bitahon) rests on a feeling of self-interest. It is an advanced level but it is still imperfect.

Stage 6. Man puts his trust in Hakadosh Barukh Hu, and not in himself, even in areas where he knows he is competent and which depend on him (work, earning a living, etc.) and credits Hakadosh Barukh Hu for any success that he reaps. This is the trust of gratitude.

Stage 7. Man has complete trust in Hakadosh Barukh Hu, whether the results are good or bad. This is total trust.

Stage 8. Man places his trust in Hakadosh Barukh Hu, with all his heart, without taking into consideration the results, good or bad, or the difficulties of life. He simply sees in everything His will, His ratzon -- whether he is rich or poor, sick or healthy, free or imprisoned - everything is seen as "ratzon Hakadosh Barukh Hu" and he does not seek any reasons or answers. This is called to be "shalem bemidat habitahon," to have complete trust.

This is why the verse from Proverbs says: "trust towards Hashem" (el-Hashem) and not in Hashem. This complete trust means that man directs his every thought towards Hashem.

This is why Psalm 25, 15 says: einai tamid el Hashem, "my eyes are every toward Hashem." The tzaddik, he who is totally righteous, does not ask Hashem or himself the reasons for why something has happened, or for accounts, even in the positive sense. This is the highest level of bitahon, of trust.

Our level of trust

Let us try
" to assess our own level of bitahon,
" to achieve these stages, which are both psychological and spiritual, in the trust we place in Hashem and in those we love.

This will certainly result in a lessening of fears, of feelings of abandonment, frustration, bitterness, suffering, vulnerability, panic, suspicion, anger and recrimination. This should not be done out of self-interest, but purely out of love and trust in the ratzon of others and of Hakadosh Barukh Hu. Unconditionally.

Yosef and trust
Rabbenu Bahya applies this concept to Yosef when he is in prison. He notes that Yosef believed he would be freed because he had correctly interpreted the dream of his co-prisoners (this is trust in one's own abilities). This is not the highest level of trust and is the reason why he was punished and spend two more years in prison.

This is why the first verse of the parasha says:
vayehi miketz shenatayim yamim…
and it came to pass at the end of two years in days…
It took Yosef two years to move from the level where one trusts in oneself and in human recognition, to trusting in Hakadosh Barukh Hu. Then men remembered him and set him free.
After his liberation, we see how Yosef trusts completely in Hakadosh Barukh Hu when he interprets Pharaoh's dream.

But Yosef's relationship with his brothers is marked by allusions to their guilt, and even the suffering of his aged father is not spared and he is subjected to the pain of thinking he will lose his youngest son.

We are witnessing a long, difficult process of purification necessary before attaining hessed, and the ability to efface painful memories.

Yaakov is one who showed complete trust: the years he waited for Rahel seemed like one day, for such was his love for her and they were as one throughout their lives. He also showed complete trust when he struggled with the angel throughout the night, his head on the stones, but never losing trust.

Yosef is a son of Yaakov-Israel. We are not the children of Yosef, but the children of Israel, the bene Yisrael. Like a child, Yosef must learn the stages of trust. We too. He showed us the way, the trials and errors.

What is the source of Yosef's skill?
We could protest and say that Yosef was an extraordinary man and an extraordinary interpreter of dreams, and that such trust and skill only belongs to the greatest of men.
If this were so, he would not be an example to us. And if he is an example, it means that his skill and his trust can be ours too and that of all the people. Which does not lessen his genius.
Ribbi Yaakov Abuhatzera (basing himself on the masters of remez and sod) will enlighten us more.
Pharaoh interpreted his dream as the forces of evil vanquishing the forces of good.
But Yosef, who lives according to the Torah and with the inner presence of the shekhina, was able to see an extra dimension - one that Pharaoh could not see for he wished to persist in his brutal reign. This dimension may seem insignificant. The dream speaks of "7" ears of corn and "7" cows. What is the meaning of the 7? Seven represents the structure of the world, which is organized in weeks of 7 days like the 7 emanations of divine life which are called sefirot.
This tells Yosef that it is the victory of evil is only external. Egyptian civilization, with its great political, scientific, economic and religious advances, used negative forces to dominate, just like western civilization is dominated by American culture today. Good is integrated into evil, and to the service of evil. Knowledge, moral values and freedom are only a pretext for the cultural domination and economic exploitation of minorities, which has resulted in great hardship and suffering for masses of people.

Yosef told Pharaoh that the domination of good by evil, which is a fact, cannot destroy the unity of the world which is based on the order of 7, as demonstrated in the dream.
The number 7 does not represent a physical trait in the world; it represents the process of divine love which is present in everything, in order for man to use it. This is what Avraham discovered when he understood that olam hessed yibane (Psalm 89, 3), the world is built on goodness and not on destructive or dominating forces. There are 7 stages in the list of sefirot, which begin with hessed (goodness). Yosef understands that the dream represents years because the gematria (numerical value) of shana (year) is the same as that of sefira. A Jew who knows the Torah is therefore not an ascete who has fled from the real world: he lives in the real world and his understanding of human nature allows him to do good in the world and ensure that goodness, and not evil, prevails. This is what Psalm 20, 8 says:
elle barekhev, some trust in chariots
veelle vasusim, and some in horces
vaanahnu be shem Hashem elokenu nazkir, but we will remember the name of Hashem our God.
The Psalm goes on: they are brought down and fallen, but we are risen and stand upright.

Hashem created good and evil, face to face. Psalm 91, 14-16 tells us that there is only one solution to avoid the victory of evil and brutal force: it is to know the name of Hashem and understand the divine process of life. This cannot be achieved by any abstract or theological beliefs, but only through exact knowledge of the word of Hashem. This is what Yosef does. He knew the Torah better than his brothers and this is why his father loved him most. He knew the shekhina, the presence of Hashem in the world, and because of this, he was able to endure the most difficult trials (prison, hatred, rejection, slander, sexual attacks, banishment, etc.) and to help bring about yehua, salvation. He does not claim that his kingdom is not of this world: on the contrary, his kingdom malkhut is very much of this world and one where goodness prevails through the shekhina. This is also the role of the Jewish people.

Yosef teaches us:
" to live always according to the Torah,
" to make good judgments based on our own abilities and the knowledge of the Torah,
" to know the teachings of the Torah, which can only be done in Hebrew and by painstaking study,
" not to fear the power of those who reject the Torah,
" to wait patiently for the victory of goodness over evil,
" not to pay too much attention to our own failings.

Internalization exercise
Examine your own level of trust and see how you can elevate it
" towards Hakadosh Barukh Hu
" towards those you love.

Examine how you deal with trust in the education of your children.
Observe how you and others can correct what was not fully acquired in childhood.

Recommended reading
" For more on bitahon, trust towards Hashem, read the relevant sections in Hovot Halevavot (The Duties of the Hearts) and in Reshit Hochma.


2nd Level

Study the Hebrew in this parasha
Study the concept of bitahon in Hebrew

This is found in Kohelet 9, 4 (Lamentations), II Kings 18, 19 and Isaiah 36, 4.
It also appears 150 times in the Torah, in the verb batah or in the noun betah (calm interior, absence of fear, physical and mental security).

The meaning of the root of bitahon
The word bitahon comes from the root bth, and the three letters beit teit heit, like the verb batah, he trusts. (Verbs in Hebrew are designated by the 3rd person in the past tense, and not by the infinitive.)
The root batah can also mean:

1. to have trust in oneself and in what is. ("of course, that's the way it is, it is evident": betah! as we say today in modern Hebrew.) See Rashi on Bereshit 34, 25.
2. at the moral, affective, religious level, to have faith in someone, in the knowledge that he or she is trustable and will not abandon you at the moment of crisis and will always act with kindness. Happy is the man who trusts in Hashem (Psalm 84, 13).
3. to be confident, to feel safe, calm. See Rashi on Psalms 4, 9.
4. to reassure someone in respect of something. See Rashi on Psalms 130, 4.
5. to make someone feel safe, secure. See Rashi on Ezekiel 12, 24.

Thus one says:
" to have trust in … batah be…
" to have trust on…. batah al…
" to have trust towards…batah el…

The type of word
The sound "on," when added to the root, creates the word bitahon. It is a suffix that designates something abstract and general. Many nouns are constructed in the same way:
ratzon, will, from the root "to want"
zikaron, memory, from the root "to remember"
yitron, advantage, from the root "more"

However, many nouns designating concrete objects or plants also end with the suffix "on" as in:
alon, oak
aron, cupboard
halon, window.

Many words in modern Hebrew are constructed the same way:
iton, newspaper
tikhon, high school

The plural form
The plural of words that end in "on" can be im, or ot, as in:
aron, cupboard; aronot, cupboards
rimon, grenade; rimonim, grenades

For more on trust in Hashem read:
Psalms 12, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 41, 52, 86….


- Psychology and Repentance
   (in french)

Part 15

Part 16

- Jerusalem excavations
- Terror and counseling
- Peace and peoples
- Israel and Iran
- Visual study & song on snow
for, through our union with the song of nature, the plan of Creation will be fulfilled

Poem: to be moon

In french

Avec Modia, vivez
vos vacances en Israël,
Texte et photos

- Par Modia, arrivez au Kotel
- La vie du Kotel
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Part 17

- Love towards all people
- Light in war
- Before the hanukiah
- Land of Israel
- Jerusalem excavations 2007
  Proof of the lies propagated
  by the media

In french - Hope in Israel

Part 20
"Encounters with God
in the real"

- You are planning a tour in Israel - Photos
- My photos and judaism
- New year of beauty
- Flowers
Gallery photos

Part 21

- My english songs


Rav Professor
Yehoshua Rahamim Dufour
(Dipur, in hebrew)

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