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Parasha No. 46
Ekev: “And it shall come to pass…”

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 7, 12 - 11, 25


Love in the Torah and the art of listening
Plan

- Can love be commanded?
- The Torah teaches us about love
- The nature of love
- Refusing love
- Discover love through the Torah
- Rashi and love
- The Shla: love and humility
- Trust in love
- Music and love
- The mitzva of love
- Five sins against love
- Love, a virgin-continent
- A plea for happiness
- Love and the tzaddik
- Trusting in love, through the night.
- Rabbenu Bahya: "what" to "100"
- All creation is relative
- The source is in God
- Reshit Hokhma
- God demands love
- The test of trust: "you"
- The "you" of Hashem
- What should we wish for?

Exercises

 

Study the Haftara
Love and doubts

listen to parasha chanted
teanim Ashkenazim (Ort link)

listen to haftara chanted
teanim Ahkenazim (Ort link)


Hebrew lesson
for beginners

Biblical Hebrew
and the parasha
for advanced students


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Level 1

Can love be a command?

The parasha commands us many times to love God. The command is unusual for love cannot be imposed or acquired on demand, nor by promises of recompense.
The end of the Song of Songs (8, 7) expresses this well:
im yiten ish et-kol-hon beito beahava, boz yavuzu lo
"if a man would give all the substance of his house for love, it would utterly be contemned."
The verse seems to be saying that the very act of giving in order to buy love is worthy of contempt.
The parasha demands of us throughout to try to understanding this important subject.
The verse also tells us that a man who gives up the loving condition that is found in study and donates instead his money to institutions of learning, does not understand the Torah and will receive only scorn. Making money or giving money to Torah institutions does not dispense a man from studying the Torah; this is the peshat (literal meaning) of this verse.
Rashi gives us another interpretation: other non-Jewish nations are ready to give everything in order to acquire a portion of what was given to Israel and God tells them: it is useless, you will receive from Me only scorn, because you desire to take the place of Israel.

Let us return to the initial question, why then does the parasha describe at length God's request for man's love?
- God lists all the treasured gifts of life which He gave man over a long period of time;
- He describes the happiness man will gain if he truly loves God;
- And the anguish and sorrow he will experience if he does not love Him.
This is a strange request, which combines excessive demands with excessive promises, and even threats (if man loves God he will be blessed with many children and great riches).

Rashi (basing himself on the Sifri for his commentary on verse 11, 21) teaches us what is behind this proposition:
divre Torah nidashin miklal lav hen u miklal hen lav
"the words of the Torah can be interpreted in such a way that a negation becomes an affirmation and an affirmation a negation."
Let us apply this teaching: these promises and demands seem to indicate that love of God is not something automatic or easy, since it needs to be commanded and made into a mitzva.

The Torah teaches us what is love
It teaches us that it is important and necessary to ask these question:
- can love be commanded?
- what kind of love is this?
- does love usually have such requirements?
These questions can enlighten our personal and marital relationships, as much as our relationship with God, especially as the Torah describes the relationship between God and man as the prototypal relationship between a couple, beginning with the creation of the heavens and the earth, the animal couples, then man and woman. The Song of Songs and the teachings of the prophets use the same symbolism to describe the relationship between Israel and God.

The logic of love
The title of this parasha ("Ekev," following …)stresses the importance of love: if there is love, good will follow, if there is no love, catastrophe will follow. This could be a description of what occurs when two lovers quarrel, when the one who insists on maintaining the relationship makes demands, lays down the law and threatens dire consequences if his or her demands are not met. In reality, demands such as these then to have the reverse effect and rarely arouse love in the other partner.

The nature of love
And yet … the parasha and the rest of the Torah seem to teach us that all this typifies the very nature of love:
aza kha mavet ahava
love is strong as death…the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame.
mayim rabim lo yukhleu lekhabot et haahava
Many waters cannot quench love
uneharot lo yishtefua
neither can the floods drown it.
(Song of Songs 8, 6-7).
This tells us that God loves Israel-humanity passionately and that the problem lies with the one who is the recipient of His love.

Rejecting love
Contrary to what the songs seem to say, the desire for love in man is not his strongest or most natural wish. Many choose other options as their priority in life; money, material possessions, ambition, war, hatred, destruction…… Those who say they desire love usually desire a fantasy or an interested form of love, and do not truly love: they seduce others in order to feel strong and to strengthen their self-esteem, but they do not really love.
When they encounter real love, they fear it, for they view it as something pathological that can destabilize their lives and lead to demands and possessiveness. So they flee love like an illness and take refuge in tranquil, monotonous relationships. They even often prefer such monotony to the passions of love.

The problem is the same in respect of man's relationship to himself. Those who love themselves are rare. Many people hate themselves and seek to please or influence others but not to love or be loved, for they do not love themselves.

Discovering love through the Torah
Love was not given as something whole and complete; man has to acquire love and understand its meaning. The world was made in such a way that man can only achieve happiness through his labor (asher bara Elokim laasot, his work which God created and made… Bereshit 2, 3).

God himself has the same problem as man, and despite his love for man-Israel, despite the extraordinary and numerous proofs of his love and the wonderful love letters, God is forced to make a request for love. Furthermore he presents the extreme demands in his request as being a normal part of love. Passion, for evermore, total love, demands, proofs are treated by Him as normal characteristics of love.

We see that the title word of the parasha appears already in the sacrifice of Avraham: "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because (ekev) thou has obeyed my voice" (Bereshit 22, 18).
The demand is already there and is linked to love. If we have difficulty accepting this law, it is because demands are often subtle forms of tyranny which kill love. But this must not make us blind to the teaching of the parasha, or lead us to throw the baby away with the bathwater.

Rashi and love
This interpretation (the positive connection between demands and love), enables us to understand Rashi's commentary and the connection he stresses between different terms: "listen, keep one's promises yishmor lekha avtahato, perhaps ki, you will say shema tomar in your heart, al kohakha because, but, maybe dilema will I succeed, reconciled, goodwill, only ask one thing, despite this, if you reject, seduce him, reproach, acknowledge that, only worry about her, if you leave me one day, satiated, fearful that, no respite, you will forget, warning, duty, resist, fear, fright." We must be pay heed to every word we use and every word we hear in our intimate relationships and be aware of the loving thread which connects us together. And we must be aware of the loving thread which connects us with Hashem in everything that is simple and concrete (hamitzvot hakalot, says Rashi on Devarim 7, 12).

The Shla: love/humility
This teaching of the parasha on the nature of love helps us to understand why the Shla centers his commentary around humility, which Moshe best exemplifies. What is the link which the Shla wishes to make between the demand for love and humility?
This "humility" anava, is not an ascetic, self-humiliating quality: rather it symbolizes the person who understands, accepts, knows and recognizes that everything comes from God. Power, social codes, ideologies, customs and conventions can make us forget this, and this results in a cultural ideology such as that of the golden calf. Even though he was brought up among an elite, Moshe knows that everything comes from God and, knowing this, he trusts that everything also will come from God. So when God declares His love and demands love in return, Moshe does not argue but accepts the gift of God with all its demands. This is his humility, which is also called yireat ahava, "fear of God through love."

Trust in love
Thus all true love and true friendship are characterized by trust -- trust in the fact that one's partner loves and is good. And if he or she makes a point of demonstrating this love, this should not arouse skepticism or arguments in defense of one's rights and autonomy. It should lead to acceptance of the gift of love.

Music and love
The inner response then are the songs of love found in the Psalms. Now we understand why God says in this parasha: " if you hearken and keep my commandments you will find happiness." This is also the song that rises in the beloved's heart at the end of the Song of Songs:
karmi sheli lefanai…
My vineyard which is mine, is before me..
hayoshevet baganim
Thou that dwellest in the gardens
haverim makshivim le kolekh
the companions hearken to thy voice
hashmiini.
cause me to hear it.
berakh lekha dodi
Make haste my beloved…"

When love is reciprocal, then there is friendship, happiness and respect for the other person. So behind the teaching of the parasha on love and demands, there is a plea for true goodness and kindness in all human relationships. And everything we have said can be applied, on a lesser scale, to friendships.
Experience has shown that kindness is so rare that it is often perceived as a sign of stupidity, naivety or masked self-interest and those who are simple and good often become the object of persecution or humiliation.
This is why the parasha asks man not only to love God, but also strangers and gerim, the poor, helpless and vulnerable who are the natural victims of malevolence. The parasha reminds us of these obligations and mitzvot because we have a tendency to despise others and reject the option of love.

The mitzva of love
Another teaching ensues from this:
- if we do not love God
- a fortiori, we will never love others, nor in our relationships with our fellow-men nor in our conjugal relationships.
In the plea He seems to make for Himself, God is in fact reminding us that the world was created by Rahamim, kindness and compassion, and it is our turn to act with kindness and compassion towards others.
Rashi has already drawn our attention to this teaching in relation to Devarim 2, 7 (ki Hashem Elokekha berakheka be kol maase yadekha… "For Hashem thy God hath blessed thee in all the work of thy hand. He hath known thy walking through this great wilderness, these forty years Hashem thy God hath been with thee. Thou hast lacked nothing"); Rashi says:
"lefihakh this is why
lo tikhpu et tovato you must not be ungrateful towards His goodness
leharot keilu atem aniyim and act as though you are poor
ella haru atzmekhem assirim but act as though you are rich."

Five sins against love
We humiliate God (or others..) five times when
- we do not hearken to him, when we do not listen
- we do not recognize acts of love and friendship
- we force others to prove their good faith
- when we reject others
- when we treat acts of kindness or love as acts of domination or possessiveness.

The parasha warns us against these faults because man easily commits them especially in the fact of true goodness, friendship, happiness and love. Man is so used to the law of the jungle and he has been so hurt by others, by those closest to him and by himself, that he automatically dismisses friendship and love and does not realize that the world is based on love.

Sometimes this attitude becomes extreme and many will go so far as to unconsciously choose relationships which are based on conflict, aggressiveness, domination/submission: this is the basis of many relationships which claim to be "loving" but are not.

Love, the virgin-continent
The Torah and the history of our people tell us that man does not know what love is and often rejects it. Love is a continent that is still mainly virgin. And God strives throughout the Torah to teach Israel that it is loved, pleading: "hearken Israel, your God is good." In our daily prayers, the Shema Yisrael (Devarim 4, 6) is preceded and followed by the word ahava, love. Furthermore the word ehad (one) has the same numerical value as the word love (ahava = 13) which surrounds it twice, like two arms or two ears.

A plea for happiness
Parasha Ekev is therefore a plea and a lesson on an important subject: happiness in the simplicity of a true love or friendship, and acceptance of an open and trusting dialogue. This is based on Hashem's love for Israel.

We can now understand why it is written that, if we love God, we will have good harvests, many children, etc. Indeed, rejection of love and goodness destroys everything, and nothing can resist this "evil eye," this ayin hara for it kills the purest sentiments, the way we see others, and we find ourselves justifying everything on the basis of an ill-intentioned remark etc. This is a sure road to destruction, while happiness was indeed possible and attainable in all is aspects.
Note: clearly friendship and love are not possible between everyone; they find expression among small groups of people, families or couples. But, here too, one has to pay heed in order for friendship and love to flourish.

Love and the tzaddik
Another level of love is found among the Jewish people. Collectively and individually, a Jew is placed like an antenna in the middle of a world in chaos and he is subjected more than others (like Avraham, Moshe and David) to challenges and tragedies; this is where his role of tzaddik comes into play. The Jew experiences the challenges of life and he understands how mankind is led into hatred, but he is asked to remain a man according to the light of the Torah.
And because he responds differently to others, he becomes the object of persecution.
His role is to triumph through his trust in God's love, which is stronger than all his enemies and stronger than the evil eye. Choosing friendship and love is the art of allowing trust in the one we love to be triumphant; this trust remains inalterable throughout time, and in the fact of external pressure. This is what the parasha is saying: ekev, following…, following trust, friendship and love blossom and bear fruit. This is why love is for "ever." Following one sign, one discovers that this love is what governs everything between two people:
be ahad me einayikh, beahad anak itzaveronaikh
" [thou has ravished my heart] with one of thine eyes, with one chain of thy neck."
(Song of Songs 4, 9).
Each sign, and there are many, contribute to the whole. One can try to make a list of all these signs. The end of the Song of Songs (8, 13) summarizes this:
haverim makshivim le kolekh hashmiini
"the companions hearken to thy voice; cause me to hear it."
When we have truly listened to each other, we will be together, says Israel to her beloved.

Those who do not see this in the land of Israel, and only see something to be negotiated according to the criteria of other nations, are far removed from Jewish history, Jewish destiny and Jewish aspirations which kept the Jewish people faithful to their Torah for centuries. If they were to act in the same way in their intimate relationships, they would fail miserably. At the same time we should not be surprised by the social and domestic violence that has emerged in Israel, for a large part of the people have lost this sense of love which has enwrapped the Shema from time immemorial. The parasha describes well what happens when we lose our way.

Trusting in love, through the night
My beloved "is altogether lovely, kulo mahamadim" says the Song of Songs (5, 16). This is the essence of love and THE MEANING OF HISTORY. Love builds or destroys a people, and a world, just like it builds or destroys a child by its presence or absence.
True, it can often be disrupted by tragic phases, but at night we believe in the return of the day. Love demands wisdom based on the experience of the alternation between night and day.
Listen, love in the way God asks of Israel and of men. It is this total receptivity that is expressed in the Song of Songs: "Who is she that looketh forth as the morning……return, return that we may look upon thee ….my vineyard, which is mine, is before me…." (chs. 6, 8).

It is this receptivity that is essential in all human relationships. How many marriages fail because of a lack of receptivity in the partners and an inability to listen to each other. The initial sense of wonder dies and everything becomes mechanical; there is no longer a soaring of loving or sexual emotions, for neither partner is listening.
The same lack of sensitivity and solidarity is present in our professional lives: ("my son has made it," means "he has made money and nothing else counts").

Receptivity and reciprocity are expressed perfectly in the month of Elul whose initials (alef, lamed, vav, lamed) are an acronym for this wonderful verse from the Song of Songs: "ani le dodi ve dodi li, I am for my beloved and my beloved is for me," which is sadly mistranslated as "I am my beloved's and my beloved is mine" which imply possessiveness and domination and the opposite of the true meaning! This error in translation is very significant, for it represents precisely the distortions which the Torah asks us to avoid and which we fall into so easily. Look up this verse in the Song of Songs.

Rabbenu Bahya: "what" to "100"
The parasha tells us: ma Hashem Elokekha shoel meimakh, (ma, what does God ask of you?). This is what we have been talking about: the demands that accompany love. Rabbenu Bahya (10, 12) expands on Tractate Menahot 43 b: "do not say ma (what), but mea (100), which represents the 100 blessings which we say every day."
The essence of our study is that if we are open, receptive and positive, then we can attain happiness, and a state of benediction and completeness; thus in order to create the word mea, the Sages added to ma the letter alef which stands for God.

So if we integrate into us the presence of God, which represents total love and kindness, then a state of benediction will reign: but we must do this throughout the day, in every little thought and feeling, and so we say 100 blessings! This is also why we repeat four times a day the shema Yisrael, and this mitzva of love, ahava (twice in the morning prayer, once in the evening prayer and once before going to sleep). This then is the fundamental question: how to move forward from "what" (ma), from blindness, insensitivity and monotony to "100" (mea), to receptivity, fruition and joy, "ekev, following you."

The whole world is a relationship
The specific Jewish aspect of this parasha is that its teaching is not simply a code for successful human or marital relationships, but should be understood as a rule that is fundamental to the functioning of creation.
When we are able to understand the nuances of the Torah in Hebrew, then we will be able to understand this teaching of the Torah at all its levels. Those who do not see the text as a call and do not hear its music in their hearts, cannot really discover the message of Judaism: the parasha tells us, "hearken and live by the Torah."

The source is in God
Moshe's humility, a quality every Jew should have, lies in the fact that he accepted this rule and its source in the dignity of God and did not act according to his own set of rules. He had such total trust that he never despaired of others, of his people or of God. He could see in others the presence of divine kavod, honor.
Happy are those who understand each other and love each other and see the presence of this divine kavod in others. When they are able to do this, they will be incapable of despising others or speaking ill of them, in their thoughts or in their hearts. Their attitude to their neighbors, colleagues at work, taxi drivers, strangers will ipso facto improve immediately. And if they lapse, which is normal, they will correct themselves quickly.

Reshit Hokhma
On this basis, we can now understand what Rabbi Eliahu ben Moshe Vidas, the pupil of Rabbi Moshe Cordovero (1522-1570 and author of Pardes Rimonim), writes about our love for God in Reshit Hokhma (The Beginning of Wisdom, 1575). He devotes lengthy chapters to this subject while Rabbenu Bahya, the author of Hovot halevavot (The duties of the Hearts) focused more on moral behavior.
Rabbi Vidas insists on the fact that love demands everything ("with all your heart, with all your body and with all your possessions") and that the "whole" of the Torah is based on this. He demonstrates, through the Torah, how true love is gratuitous and does not require anything in return, nor in this world or in the world to come.
Love demands preference, exclusivity, stability, desire, proximity, loving another like oneself, recognizing the other's needs, and doing everything to ensure they lack nothing. This is how human beings love one another because this is how God loved us initially and because He needs to be loved by us too.

It follows that love can only blossom if each person is conscious of its source and that the source is pure and good. Then love recognizes good in others and responds with goodness. Love implies control of our yetzer hara, our evil instinct and our tendency to be possessive of an object (money,…) and re-integration of our negative drives under the control of goodness.
Since this takes place from the moment our tiniest impulses awaken (hitorerut), we say that love is in the heart (ahava ba lev), that God demands the heart (rahamana liba bae, Sanhedrin 106b), and that love must envelop the whole being (ahavat nefesh mamash).
This goodness, disinterestedness and total love derive from the fact that this is how God loves, and He created us in this way and in His image.

God demands the heart
The parasha puts great emphasis on this aspect, so that Judaism would not be just a religion based on knowledge, customs and duties; for God demands the heart. This is his model and this is the model for all human relations. The fruit of this attitude is joy (simha, also a name given to women and men) says Reshit Hokhma. Man's destructive drive is controlled by goodness, thus leading to fruition and joy. Where doubt, bitterness, anxiety, sadness and evil may prevail, the voluntary return towards goodness leads to joy, security, and trust.

The test of trust: "you"
It is Avraham and his immense trust and receptivity who was the first to say "you" (at) to a spouse: "Behold now I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon, you" (Bereshit 12, 11); and he discovers the first "you" in the history of mankind. My students, many of whom received an education devoid of Jewish religion, immediately understand the richness of their culture when we study this verse and note how Avraham tells his wife that he has seen her external and her inner beauty from alef to tav (from A to Z), as symbolized in the Hebrew word at (you).
The Torah asks us to see through the banality of external appearances in order to discover the inner beauty of the heart which is worthy (kavod) of being loved and which inspires in us care and kindness. This is what the Torah means by "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" (veahavta lereakha kamokha, Vayikdra 19, 18).

In the image of Hashem
All this is in the image of Hashem's love for us. It is He who loved us first and who teaches us how to love and tells us how to love one another according to His way, and by which He created the world. This is why I have called my book on the Talmud: Lev, heart.

What should we wish for?
That the Torah should be better known;
That couples should discover, through the Torah, the code of happiness;
That friends should discover, through the Torah, the codes of respect, fraternity and trust;
That men should recognize that they are made in the image of Hashem
Then we will be closer to Gan Eden.

According to the Shla, Hakadosh Barukh Hu needed this so much (avoda tzorekh gavoa) that in his impatience and frustration at man's behavior, He chose a tiny people to give his message to and this is the nation of Israel.
He begs them: "Hearken, Israel," and awaits our response.

How many dismiss this and do not even try to live this way -- in goodness and in love (because they have been hurt, are ignorant or scared).

Rabbi Yaakov Abuhatzera
The teaching of this eminent rabbi helps us to understand why there is no difference or contradiction between self-development through therapy or education and the approach taught by the Torah. In his commentary on this parasha, he shows how the Sages developed the Jewish concept of man through the Torah and how the highest levels (the completeness of the neshama) can only be achieved through knowledge and self-development at the level of the nefesh (being, identity, and psychological growth). Only when a being is in harmony with its source can it go on to higher levels of existence.
Rabbi Abuhatzera also teaches us that this equilibrium is destroyed every day and that we, our relationships and the world must be reconstructed every day; this is why the morning prayer is so important and long.

Exercises
- Re-read the entire parasha in this perspective,
- at each point, examine your own relationships and how they can be improved,
- learn the vocabulary in this commentary.


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2nd level
for advanced students


Hebrew lesson with Rashi: the meaning of the particle ki
Each word and each letter of the Torah carries a particular meaning. Rashi helps us to discover these meanings and all the great commentators use his interpretations at every level of transmission.
The teachings of God can only be taught in Hebrew; translations are inadeqate. The Hebrew four-letter name for God carries a world of meaning which is not found in the English word "God."
It is important to understand the nuances of every word, for example ki - a frequently used word (4376 times in the Tanakh). Refer to the expression ki-tov (that was good) in the first chapter of Bereshit.

1. In modern Hebrew the word ki means "because"
But at the beginning of verse 7, 17 in this parasha, it says ki tomar bilevaveka…" If thou shalt say in thy heart. These nations are more than I; how can I dispossess them?" (read the verse). Here, ki does not mean "because." Rashi ststes: "this ki, you are obliged to understand it in the meaning of perhaps," al-korhaka leshon dilema hu. He adds: "ve lo yitakhen leforsho beahat mishear leshonot shel ki, it is not possible to explain this by one of the other meanings of ki."
What is he referring to? We have seen before that Rashi's method is to make a statement without elaborating on it, for he presumes we know the subject or we are studying it with a master. See Rashi on Gittin 90 a.

2. Rashi means: ki can have several meanings:
- as in (asher) "that." Analyze Bereshit chapter 1: ki tov. Devarim 17, 12.
- as in (im) "if" (dilema) "perhaps." Analyze Shemot 21, 2.
- as in (keshe, kaasher) "when." Analyze Shemot 12, 25.
- as in (ella, aval) "but." Analyze Bereshit 32, 29 or Devarim 16, 7-8.
- as in (af al pi she, gam im) "although." Analyze Vayikra 11, 4 or Psalms 25, 11.
- as in (deha, mipne, mishum, mikevan she, ahare she) "since." Analyze Bereshit 19, 8.
- as in ( belo safek, azai) "undoubtedly." Analyze Bamidbar 22, 29.
Furthermore, ki has such a serious connotation that it is sometimes translated as a vow, an oath, a prediction or an imprecation.

3. The deductive meaning of "since"

- "since" with emphasis: "since as well, for therefore" (ki al ken).
Rashi (Bereshit 18, 5).
This has the same meaning as al asher and should always be translated so: "for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof" (Bereshit 19,8), as well as Bereshit 38, 26; 33,10; Numbers 10,31; Bemidbar 14, 43.

¢ God preferred you, chose you, not because you are
¢ smaller than other nations… but because the Creator
¢ loves you….
¢ Say this over again and again.

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Exercise
Analyze the different forms of ki in the Torah and in Rashi.
- Devarim 7, 7: literally: " It is not because you are more numerous than other nations that Hashem loves you and chose you, ki but because you are the smallest among nations." This means: because you consider yourselves to be small, therefore Hashem loves you…
- Analyze the Hebrew in Devarim 15, 11 (ki..al ken) and Hosea 6, 5.


You will find now other lessons in Biblical Hebrew for advanced students

Angle2


- Psychology and Repentance
   (in french)

Part 15
STUDY HEBREW

Part 16
JERUSALEM

- Jerusalem excavations
- Terror and counseling
- Peace and peoples
- Israel and Iran
- Visual study & song on snow
for, through our union with the song of nature, the plan of Creation will be fulfilled

-
Poem: to be moon

In french

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Texte et photos

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- "Le" texte sur Jérusalem
- Voir et visiter Israël
- Voyage dans le Nord d'Israël
- Belle carte d'Israël
- Jérusalem et les nations

- Vacances en Israël sur Modia
- Le Kotel en film direct
- et ici aussi, autre caméra

- Trahison historique:
L'antique synagogue de Jéricho

 

Part 17
ISRAEL AND
THE NATIONS

- Love towards all people
- Light in war
- Before the hanukiah
- Land of Israel
- Jerusalem excavations 2007
  Proof of the lies propagated
  by the media

In french - Hope in Israel



Part 20
PHOTOS
"Encounters with God
in the real"

- You are planning a tour in Israel - Photos
- My photos and judaism
- New year of beauty
- Flowers
-
Gallery photos


Part 21
SONGS

- My english songs



Dedication

Rav Professor
Yehoshua Rahamim Dufour
(Dipur, in hebrew)

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All images on the site are personal photos of the author, except a few specified that images are copyright External authorized
No work is done on the site during the Sabbath and Jewish holidays
- Textes et informations © Copyright Dufour