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Parasha No. 31
Emor: “Speak”

Vayikra (Leviticus) 21, 1 - 24, 22


- Summary of the parasha: mitzvot and themes
- The deeper meaning of the text
- The role of the Omer
- Method of study
- Rashi's interpretation
- Rabbenu Bahya's interpretation
- First example
- Second example: importance of grammar in the Torah
- The Shla's interpretation
- The role of the creator and our role

This commentary has three parts, according to readers'ability
and determination to study.

Imagine that we will do this commentary together, reflect together, refer to the sources and references together and analyze them together.

We shall discover that the laws given to the Cohanim also concern us deeply and that it is only through study that we can discover the way to holiness.

Listen to the parasha chanted (ORT link) teamim Ashkenazim

Listen to the parasha chanted (Alliance link) teamim Sepharadim

Listen to the haftara chanted (ORT)
teamim Ashkenazim


Refer to the section on the Jewish family
Refer to the sections on marriage and the family

Summary of the parasha: mitzvot and themes

Parasha Emor describes mitzvot nos. 263 to 325.
The mitzvot create the highest level of holiness for the Cohen Gadol (the High Priest) in the various situations when he might come into contact with imperfection (impurity, infirmity, failure in inter-personal or marital relations, and especially in respect of contact with the dead).
This concept of holiness is then applied to offerings, sacrifices and festivals: Pessah, Omer, Shavuot, Rosh Hashana, Kippur, Succot.

The deeper meaning of the text
The parasha should not be read as though it were a mathematical or legal text.
It was written in order to transmit to us a way of life and a divine plan. The deeper meaning of the text can only be discovered through our own self-examination.
1. The Cohen Gadol represents man's wish and determination to achieve spiritual renewal.
2. His holiness teaches us how we should live, like him, in order to become closer to Hashem. Like him, we should do our utmost to remain close to the holy presence, at every level of existence, in our thoughts, personal relations and actions.
3. This parasha is particularly interesting for it shows us that even though we may have grasped the main meaning of the text, the Torah demands in-depth analysis in order for us to understand its deeper meaning.
4. It is obvious that we cannot carry our such an analysis on our own, for by studying alone we lack the sense of discernment necessary to avoid errors, fatigue, misinterpretations and blockages. This particular commentary needs to be studied in twos, in a group or with a teacher. Individual study is the preparation stage for communal study. Jewish tradition invented the hevruta (exchange) long ago but it is only valid if students prepare for it and if they are guided by those who have knowledge of Torah study.
It is impossible to "surf" the Torah.

The role of the Omer
The general theme of the parasha is put in a specific context in the verses describing the offering of the Omer (Vayikra 23, 9 - 22): "And Hashem spoke unto Moshe saying: Speak unto the children of Israel and say unto them: when ye are come into the land which I give unto you and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring the omer (sheaf) of the first-fruits of your harvest to the priest. And he shall wave the sheaf before Hashem….and ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest (Pessah)…seven weeks shall there be complete…fifty days and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto Hashem." It is important to read the whole of this section which ends with the words "…..the gleaning of thy harvest, thou shalt leave them for the poor, and for the stranger. I am Hashem your God."

Method of Study
As is our practice, we shall base this commentary on the works of three masters: Rashi, Rabbenu Bahya and the Shla hakaddosh. Without them, we could not understand the text. Guided by them, we can begin our analysis of the text.
We find three duties:
to bring to the Temple, in addition to the offerings and sacrifices, the sheaf of the barley harvest,
to wave them in different directions, as a symbol that God's goodness comes from all directions;
to count the days and weeks from Pessah to Shavuot.

Rashi's interpretation
We continue our study of Rashi's method of interpretation.
Rashi always indicates the meaning of a text through precise details: thus he defines the omer: assirit haefa; hakh aya shema, a volume of measure which is the 10th of the efa (he does not state the source for this, which is Shemot 16, 36; the efa represents 25 liters, making the omer 2 liters and a half).
He then stresses certain points, which indicate the main theme: the duty to be holy. These are:
" "in all your dwellings" (bekhol moshevoteikhem), verse 23, 14;
" the fact that the weeks must be "complete" (temimot tiyena), verse 23, 15;
" "they shall be holy" (koddesh yiyu), verse 23, 20 and he stresses that the offering made by the community has a greater level of holiness than that of an individual (shalme-tzibur shehen kadshe kadashim);
" "thou shalt leave" (taazov otam) for the poor and for the stranger, verse 23, 22.
Now that we are more acquainted with Rashi's method, we know we have to focus on these specific details and study them in order to the deep meanings in the text. Readers should try to discover the meaning of each word quoted above, before reading the rest of the parasha.

Rashi draws our attention to each word: "hanah ligneheim vehem yilketu, veein lekha lesayea leahad mehem, stop before them and they will reap, and you do not need to help any of them." Those who study the phrases quoted above, will discover the rules of conduct for achieving the state of holiness described in this parasha.

Rabbenu Bahya's interpretation
We are already well-acquainted with Rabbenu Bahya's method: it consists in examining first what King Shlomo (King Solomon) says in Proverbs (Mishle), then analyzing the precise meaning of the text in the same way as Rashi does, and finally adding other more elevated meanings (symbolic, hidden, the sod).

First example
Thus Rabbenu Bahya stresses, as I do, the importance of beginning with a detailed, precise interpretation before moving onto higher levels of interpretation: when verse 23, 15 states usefartem lakhem ("and ye shall count unto you."), this represents a commandment that concerns every member of the community, just as in verse 23, 40, when it states "and ye shall take you....branches of palm trees." (ulekahtem lakhem): this is an obligation incumbent on "each member" of the children of Israel, so that he will count and be counted, judge, examine and remember, as is written in Tractate Menahot 65b.
This concerns each and everyone (lekhol ehad veehad). The commentaries of the Sages stress the importance of this individual self-examination.
The essence of the mitzva, writes Rabbenu Bahya, is to begin counting immediately and never cease bringing offerings to Hashem: the most important mitzva is to bring an offering from within oneself: this counts more than a sacrifice. The sacrifice is only there to enable the offering: hine hamenahot ikar hamitzva: lo ikar hakorbanot.

Second example: the importance of grammar in the Torah
Rabbenu Bahya also teaches us that in order to appreciate the beauty of Rashi's detailed commentaries one must know the grammar of the Torah. Let us follow his method.
In verse 23, 16, if we had not taken note of the atnah, (punctuation sign marking the middle of a sentence, like a comma), we would have, mistakenly, read the text as: "even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days." But by taking note of the atnah (it appears between "fifty" and "days" thus breaking the expression), one reads the text as: "even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty (atnah, break) days and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto Hashem." Rashi writes that "unto" in "unto the morrow after the seventh week" means not included (ve load bikhal vehen arbaim vetisha yom), thus making the period 49 days and not 50.
Rashi's detailed analysis teaches us that we need to be thorough and consistent in our self-examination, leaving no holds barred. But is it possible to go this far, to attain shlemut, the state of perfection found in the number 50 or can we only attain 49? Whatever the case, we must try and these weeks will then be complete.

Anoter interpretation
Rabbenu Bahya brings to our attention another sign: between "shall ye number (tisperu)" and "fifty (hamishim)," there is a small sign (taam) in the form of an inverted comma, which represents a break in the meaning and indicates that the two phrases should be understood to mean, as Rashi writes, "thou shalt offer it on the fiftieth day."
This small punctuation mark (called tipeha, tarha, or dehi), which is important when chanting the text, is usually placed before the end of a verse (before the sof pasouk), or before the middle of the verse (preceding the etnahta or atnah). It is a very important indication of a break in the text and gives rise to multiple interpretations, as in the first word of the Torah (bereshit), which inspired the whole of the Tikkunei Zohar.
We can now move from the grammatical level found in the taam (taste, sense) to other levels of meaning, for the taam always connects different levels of "meaning," from the most precise to the most spiritual as felt by the neshama. We now see that we must try to reach the 49th degree of purification, but that there is a break between the 49th and the 50th degree, for the 50th represents a state of total union which cannot be achieved in this temporal world, as Moshe himself learnt.

The Shla's interpretation
The above now enables us to move onto the Shla's commentary on the Omer, which is found in his Massekhet Pessahim.
When we say "hayom" (today) in the blessing for the Omer (for example, "today the 14th day of the Omer…), we are carrying out the mitzva of "counting" for we are taking into account the present and adding it to the past; and we must count the days and the weeks for verse 23, 15 states: "and ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf (omer) of the waving, seven weeks shall there be complete," as is written in Tractate Hagiga 18a. (Refer to the Shulhan Arukh, Orah Hayim 489a.) What is the meaning of this: let's try and find the meaning ourselves before looking at the answers.
The Tossafot tell us that days are for keddusha and weeks for completeness (yome la kodesh, atzeret shevui la tashlume). Since the Temple has not yet been rebuilt, we then say yehi ratzon she yibane beit hamikdash (may the Temple be rebuilt, cf. Tossafot in Megila 20b, dibbur hamathil "kol"). The meaning behind this is that we ourselves are destined to be sanctuaries. Thus, according to the Shla, the counting concerns every individual (body, guf), but taking the first-fruits of the harvest and offering them concerns the Temple, the ultimate symbol of the community's completeness.
At this point, the Shla praises his community in Prague, which recited this blessing together.
He notes that the combination of days and weeks is connected to the creation. The initial process of creation did indeed take place in a sequence of day after day, till a week was completed: six times one, plus the day of rest. The same metric rhythm is found in Rabbi Nehuneiya ben Hakana's prayer, which we recite every day during the counting of the Omer and which has 49 words.
In the same vein, the renewal of creation (which we pray for in every kiddush) comes about through the exodus from Egypt: the expression yetziat mitzrayim occurs 50 times in the Torah, for it represents Hashem's benevolence which flows through the 50 gates of purity and holiness and 50 steps.

The role of the creator and our role in this process
The process of liberation, which was due solely to the benevolence of the Creator, was not was not completely achieved at Pessah: it is up to man now to do his part. When he "counts" he is examining himself and then moves from one level to another.

The work of purification: from oneself, to one's family, to Israel
The Shla bases himself on the Zohar, and notes that we can refer to the Zohar when its teachings are teachings but not when it delves into esoteric interpretations which are incomprehensible to those with limited knowledge. The Zohar II 182b provides us with the answer to the apparent enigma of the Torah.
In Vayikra 16, 6, 11, 17, it is written that "Aharon will present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for himself, and for his house (vehikriv Aharon et par hahatat asher lo vekhiper beado uvead beito).
This tells us that he had first to purify himself, and then for his house and family. All processes of purification should follow this concentric line, beginning internally and working outwards: thus one begins with oneself, then with one's family, then with Israel. The process of purification does not begin with grand theories of politics or religion. This is why the Modia site accords great importance to the psychological and existential aspects of inter-personal and marital relations, in order enhance the presence of keddusha.

The same process exists in the relationship between the Creator and Israel, knesset Yisrael - the community of Israel, the "House of Israel." From within this world, we must try to attain the holy days of the world above. The process progresses at a pace of 1/7: six steps before attaining the landing, six days before attaining shabbat. The same goes for what we have to do in this world: we must fill our days with holiness, with the keddusha on On-High so that, from day to day, slowly and modestly, our weeks will become complete and close to keddusha.

According to the second passage of the Zohar, which deals with these questions (III 95a), Hashem demands this process of reparation from knesset Yisrael, the house of Israel. Let us read the relevant verse from the Song of Songs (Shir Hashirim 5, 2): "I sleep but my heart waketh: it is the voice of my beloved that knocketh, saying: open to me my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled: for my head is filled with dew.."
It is knesset Yisrael that is speaking and saying that it is in a state of alert during the dispersion from Egypt and during the trials of slavery ; and her beloved is hakadosh barukh hu, who remembers His covenant. He says "open to me, even as small an opening as a needle's eye, and, then, I will open wide for you the gates of On-High ; only you can open these gates and if you do not do so, I will remain closed and hidden. Open to me, so that we can unite forever." This is what David wrote in Psalm 118: "open to me the gates of righteousness….its is the gate of Hashem, pithu li shaare tzedek…ze hashar le Hashem."
The Shla says that it is sufficient to say this. He who truly wishes to attain this state of union in his life, which God revealed to His people Israel, will find the way.

Lessons to be drawn:
a process of political or ideological liberation is not enough;
true liberation needs to be accomplished every day, in concrete daily life;
it must be sought after systematically and methodically,
only man can open the gates of benediction ; so he should not be surprised or complain if the this does not happen: if it does not happen, it means he did not use the key he was given.
the omer represents the strategy to be followed in this process of liberation.
The Shla concludes that man must pursue - every day - this work of reparation for the days of the omer are also the days of judgment (din).
The Sages therefore defined the order of prayer and mitzvot in this process of purification, for every day and every week.
For example, in Tomer Devora, Rabbi Moshe Cordovero teaches us how to improve each of our traits, each nidda, so that each person will draw closer to His creator who made him in His image. Then the gates will open and…

Final conclusion:
We can only attain this knowledge through careful and serious study, according to the methods of the Sages.
In contrast, inchoate philosophies or approaches to the Torah are dangerous. As is study without the help of the Sages or those who have studied the tradition. The harm caused by ignorant interpretations is well-known: thus there is a huge difference between "blessed is he who comes in the name of God" and "is blessed in the name of God, he who comes," which is the correct reading, if one follows, as we have seen above, the detailed punctuation in the Torah. There is nothing more dangerous than to be ignorant and play around with the word of God himself. History has shown that this always results in wars and persecution.
The Torah is a Torah of life only if it is studied with rabbis or Torah scholars.


2nd Level of Study

Emor, speak, and dabber, say
This study of the language of the parasha
illustrates the importance of the Torah
for the education of our children

The key is found in Rashi
With his usual brevity, Rashi poses an important question. The first verse of a parasha always contains a word which forms the title of the parasha. In this case, the word is Emor, "speak," and it will re-appear in three different forms. This tells us that it is a particularly important word and we should study it.
All the more so since the third book of the Torah relates to speech (Vayikra, he called).
Translated literally the first verse of the parasha reads as follows:
"`and he said Hashem unto Moshe, speak unto the cohanim sons of Aharon ; and you will say unto them to man he will not defile himself among his people." First there is the past tense, then an imperative and a future tense: this is unusual for the same word in one sentence.
Rashi writes: emor, vemarta, lehazhir gedolim al ketanim: "he said, you will speak so that the big ones will warn the little ones." Clearly this brief commentary needs to be decoded in order to be fully understood.

Rashi's method
Rashi forces us to look up the writings of the Sages in order to find the sources to which he refers: this is his way of teaching, for the Torah only reveals itself this way. Let us follow the arrow.

Analysis of his commentary
emor, veamarta, lehazhir gedolim al ketanim
emor, veamarta, he asks us to note and examine the repetition;
lehazhir, then he indicates that the repetition represents a warning sign (we need to ask ourselves why the word amar is used as a warning);
gedolim al ketanim, finally he speaks of the big and the small (who are these?).

Rashi's sources
Method: Rashi often develops a commentary on a text in commentaries on other verses, and we need to find these in order to understand what he is saying..
This is why in Torah study, it is important to study with those who have greater knowledge than ours, and more books at their disposal and in their heads and hearts.
Rashi also often bases himself on the Middrash Rabba and the Middrash Tanhuma. It may seem strange that he draws the literal meaning of a text, the peshat, from the colorful and imaginative middrashim. Indeed, he tells us that the exact meaning of the peshat is always drawn from a particular middrash.
In this case, we discover that his source is Middrash Tanhuma:
The Middrash notes the repetition of the word "speak" in emor, veamarta and that it is directed to the Cohanim (emor el hacohanim veamarta alehem, hare amira shene peamim). It interprets the meaning in this way: like a king says to his cook "since you come and go in my presence and see my face, you must not become impure by having contact with the dead." This teaches us that the Cohen serves the Creator who is the source of all life and that he transmits life to the people through the sacrifices which enable the people to eat ; the repetition would seem to represent the coming and going, which means that it ensures communication in both directions in order to transmit the gift of life.
The Middrash then cites a repetition of the same word in Psalm 12, 7 (imarot Hashem amarot tehorot…): "The words of Hashem are pure words, thus hakadosh barukh hu admonishes Yisrael to be holy and pure." Let us reflect on the meaning of this interpretation. Everyone can find meaning in it: I see a connection between the repetition and purity ; Hashem manifests Himself in purity. Thus the people of Israel, who are the people of Hashem, must live in the holiness of Hashem and keep His purity in words and actions. The prototype of such a man is the Cohen. And just as Hashem the great informs the small, so the Cohen must inform the people. The repetition thus has many meanings.
The Middrash Rabba quotes the same verse again, giving another interpretation which focuses directly on "purity": the words of other kings and other servants are not pure because they engage in flattery and the pursuit of self-interest, whereas the Cohen is totally pure and never utters one word which could be tainted by impurity. Thus Bereshit 7, 2 says: min habehema ahser lo tehora hi, "and of the beasts that are not clean…" thus avoiding the negative word "impure."

Code of behavior, derekh eretz

We draw from this an important law of conduct:
we must constantly watch over our speech, actions and thoughts in order to ensure they are negative, impure. Jews, like the Cohanim, must try to live in a state of holiness.
This is especially so in a world which displays so easily things that are not pure or beautiful (examples will quickly come to mind).
The problem, however, is not solely in our external behavior: it is also in the way we perceive and feel things. Hashem does not ask us to suppress what is not beautiful in the world, but rather he asks us to direct our gaze in another direction: there are indeed animals that are impure but the reasons why they are impure is beyond our comprehension.
In contrast, impure words and thoughts are within our control (slander, lashon hara, evil thoughts, ayin hara, etc.).

Rashi's source for the big and small
We find it in Tractate Yevamot, at the bottom of age 114a which comments on Vayikra 17, 12 (parasha Aharare Mot): "kol nefesh mikem lo tokhal dam, no soul of you shall eat blood, lehazhir hagedolim al haketanim." We see that Rashi abridged this by omitting the definite article. Rashi writes that the small ones are the sons of Aharon, and they are being warned not to become impure.

This illustrates another Rashi trait: he often elaborates on his commentaries in different places, or in his commentaries on the Torah or on the Talmud.

The Sages thus conclude that the two words veamarta lahem (and say unto them) are apparently superfluous: they are addressed to the children of Aharon, who are not obligated by the mitzva which their father is beholden to carry out, but who must not be tainted by impurity.

Educating conduct: dare to be strict
Rashi's commentary has two dimensions:
linguistic: there is a sense of "transmission" in the repetition, as is often found in the Torah: Hashem said to Moshe "speak unto.."
educational: Rashi demonstrates that the Torah devotes much attention to the education of children by their parents and that it requires them to assume their responsibilities in this respect. An example: Rashi comments on these words from Shemot 20, 10 (parasha Yithro) "lo taase khol melakha ata uvinekha uvitekha, thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter" thus: "Are we talking about little ones or big ones: but the latter we already included in the prohibition; thus, this is in order to warn the big ones about the actions of the little ones, as we have learnt in the Mishna, if a little one tries to put out a flame, one must not let him because we are directly responsible for ensuring that he rest." How many parents do not supervise their children and allow them to get overtired, angry or exhausted or do not teach them control of their words, and then they are surprised when their children grow up to be tyrannical, demanding and incapable of listening to others - traits which they will later reproduce in their marriages, causing psychic and sometimes physical suffering to their spouses. The teachings of the Torah warn us against such behavior.

Code of behavior: be tolerant unto strangers
Rashi bases himself on the mishna which is cited in the Mekhilta on this verse. It states that we do not apply the same law to strangers.
The Mekhilta refers to a passage in Tractate Shabbat (page 121a): a fire erupted in Bet-Shean and Roman soldiers came to put it out ; the Jewish landlord did not allow them to put it out because it was Shabbat, rain fell and put out the fire and that night the landlord sent compensation to the soldiers'barracks. But the rabbis told him that he had made a mistake in halting their intervention for non-Jews are not obliged to keep Shabbat. Rashi states that the problem regarding strangers is different to that of a child who is the responsibility of his parents and who may try to put out the fire because he loves his father and wishes to spare him suffering. This shows us too that a child is capable of analytical thought, even if his conclusion may be mistaken. The educational responsibility of adults is extremely important.

We thus discover:
that the Torah accords great importance to words and speech;
that the Torah treats every act in the context of human behavior and the latter in the context of inter-personal relations;
Rashi's love for children, whose intelligence he respects but who also need to be educated with a firm hand.
He depicts the young Joseph (Bereshit 41, 43) as "father in wisdom and tender in age" (av behokhma verakh bashanim). Students should read the whole of Rashi's long commentary on Vayikra 19, 3: they will discover his great knowledge of and skill in analyzing family relationships, always in relation to Hashem and the Torah.
He describes families where all is bad (Vayikdra 20, 5).
He describes, with gladness or sorrow, the characters of the Torah, and always stresses the meaning of each letter and the names of the characters (Vayikra 24, 11): an Israelite and the son of a mixed marriage quarrel and the latter blasphemes Hashem. The name of this man's mother was Shelomit, the daughter of Dibri… Well before psychological theories on the transmission of family traits, Rashi wrote: "she was called Shelomit because she was a gossip: shalom to him, shalom to her, shalom to everyone. She gossiped with everyone. She was the daughter of Dibri (davar, word) because she spoke non-stop with everyone and this demeaned her."
Rashi shows us how the Torah teaches us lessons that are applicable to our daily lives and he shows us how Torah study gives us the analytical tools we need in order to behave in an optimal way and avoid pitfalls. Much can be written about the educational qualities of Rashi's method and we shall have the occasion to return to them many times.

Emor et daber, gentleness and hardness
Those who have some knowledge of the Torah will remember that it makes a great distinction in the use of these two words: emor and daber.
Regarding the episode where Miriam and Aharon speak be Moshe, against Moshe, Rashi shows:
1) that the root amar is always used in the context of prayer, leshon tahanunim: (ein amira bekhol makom ella leson tahanunim, Bamidbar 12, 1).
2) that, in contrast, the root daber is always used in the context of hardness, leshon kashe: (ein dibbur bekhol makom ella leshon kashe, Bamidbar 12, 1).
Or reproach:
(kol makom she neemar "divrei" eino ella divre tokhakot, Kohelet 1, 1).
Thus, after the exodus from Egypt (Shemot 19, 3), Moshe is commanded in these terms: "ko tomar leveit Yaakov, thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob." The verb used here is amar. Rashi writes: "ellu hanashim, tomar lahem beleshon rakha," these are women, you will speak to them in a soft language.
This softness however does not preclude strictness, in the same way as Rashi described in the relations between parents and children: he ends his commentary on this section of Shemot with these words: "Moshe descended towards the people and said to them…: vayomer alehem atraa zo, and he told this warning."


The Book of Vayikra began with Hashem's call to Moshe to speak to the children of Israel. The words are spoken softly, but in order to be truly effective they must be strict, and contain a warning.
The Book of Vayikra appears to focus on sacrifices ; but as the root of the word korban indicates (draw near), this book deals with what we must do in order to draw near to Hashem.
It teaches us that the quality of the relationship is in our hands (these are the precise words of the commentators), as is our level of purity and keddusha.


After having studied Rashi's detailed analysis, we can now move on to the Rambam's commentary on the first verse of this parasha.
We will be surprised to discover that the Rambam points to numerous examples where the verb amar has a similar meaning to daber, and vice versa. We already noted this intermediate meaning in the notion of warning. The Radak makes the same point.
There is, in fact, no contradiction here: Rashi is the basis of Torah study, but Torah study also wishes us to see the complexities of life and different interpretations that change the perspective of things. This is an endless process and the commentary of. Rabbenu Bahya, who was a disciple of the Rambam but also integrated Rashi's commentaries, confirms this.

Rabbenu Bahya begins his commentary on this parasha with Proverbs 24, 26:
"Sefatayim yishak meshiv devarim nehokhim, every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right answer."
Each word in this verse can be analyzed as in the preceding commentary.

Rabbenu Bahya stresses that the word for lips in Hebrew is linked to riverbank which demarcates limits.
He reminds us that, irrespective of the failures in life, the apex of this process is that death comes as a kiss (mitat neshika), for even in the last moment of life, the words of the Torah are present. Moshe, Aharon and Miriam benefit too from this death, despite the temporary conflict between them.
The Jewish tradition of learning, in which knowledge is transmitted from master to student, is called the "oral tradition," al pi, which literally means "on the mouth." And just before reciting the amida prayer, one says "my lips thou shalt open."


- Psychology and Repentance
   (in french)

Part 15

Part 16

- Jerusalem excavations
- Terror and counseling
- Peace and peoples
- Israel and Iran
- Visual study & song on snow
for, through our union with the song of nature, the plan of Creation will be fulfilled

Poem: to be moon

In french

Avec Modia, vivez
vos vacances en Israël,
Texte et photos

- Par Modia, arrivez au Kotel
- La vie du Kotel
- Prières au Kotel
- Fête au Kotel
- La destruction du Temple
- Photos rares et émouvantes des abords du Temple
- Synagogues de Jérusalem
- Maisons de Jérusalem
- Les fleurs de Jérusalem
- Ici, tout sur Jérusalem
- "Le" texte sur Jérusalem
- Voir et visiter Israël
- Voyage dans le Nord d'Israël
- Belle carte d'Israël
- Jérusalem et les nations

- Vacances en Israël sur Modia
- Le Kotel en film direct
- et ici aussi, autre caméra

- Trahison historique:
L'antique synagogue de Jéricho


Part 17

- Love towards all people
- Light in war
- Before the hanukiah
- Land of Israel
- Jerusalem excavations 2007
  Proof of the lies propagated
  by the media

In french - Hope in Israel

Part 20
"Encounters with God
in the real"

- You are planning a tour in Israel - Photos
- My photos and judaism
- New year of beauty
- Flowers
Gallery photos

Part 21

- My english songs


Rav Professor
Yehoshua Rahamim Dufour
(Dipur, in hebrew)

All images on the site are personal photos of the author, except a few specified that images are copyright External authorized
No work is done on the site during the Sabbath and Jewish holidays
- Textes et informations © Copyright Dufour